Section 1-Defining Psychology and Exploring Its Roots
Psychology-scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
3 terms in definition-science, behavior, mental processes
Science-systematic methods to observe human behavior and draw conclusions
Goals of psychological science-describe, predict, and explain behavior
Psychologists are wanting to control or change the behavior of the patient.
Example: Reduce violence or promote happiness.
Behavior-everything that we do that can be observed
Example: two people kissing, a baby crying, a college student riding a motorcycle to campus
Mental processes- thoughts, feelings, and motives that each of us experiences privately but that cannot be observed directly.
The Psychological Frame of Mind-
Four attitudes-critical thinking, curiosity, skepticism, objectivity
Critical thinking-process of thinking deeply and actively, asking questions, and evaluating the evidence.
Counterintuitive-contradict out intuitive impressions of how the world works.
Skeptical-challenge whether a supposed fact is really true
Objective-trying to see things as they really are, not as the observer would like them to be.
Empirical method- gaining knowledge through the observation of events, the collection of data, and logical reasoning.
Psychology as the Science of All Human Behavior
Includes the study of therapy and psychological disorders
Clinical psychologists-who specialize in studying and treating psychological disorders.
Sigmund Freud- human behavior is caused by dark, unpleasant, unconscious impulses pressing for expression
Psychology in Historical Perspective
Philosophy- rational investigation of the underlying principles of being and knowledge.