16 January, 2013
1. Directive: Use of language is to cause or to interpret behavior (give directions/issue commands)
Go to school.
Stay away from sweets.
Do your homework. 2. Cognitive: Use of language is to convey information and that is either true or false (give information)
Today is my birthday.
I have a driver’s license.
I attend college at Mt. San Antonio College
3. Emotive: Use of language is to express or to evoke feelings and is not true or false.
Weapons are dangerous and thus should be prohibited.
Fast food restaurants should be eliminated from the American society.
Teenagers are becoming less productive as technology increases.
1. Intension: Consists of the qualities or attributes that the term connotes.
Intension: Communication skills, 5 senses,
Extension: Cousin Marcos, Philosophy students, College students.
Intension: Trucks, Mini-vans, Vans, Sports Cars.
Extension: Buick, Lamborghini, Maserati.
List the 5 Purposes of Definition
1. To increase vocabulary
2. To eliminate ambiguity
3. To reduce vagueness
4. To explain theoretically
5. To persuade (never appropriate)
List the Five Types of Definition
1. Stipulative Definition: Assigns a meaning to a word for the first time.
2. Lexical Definitions: Is used to report the meaning that a word already has in a language.
3. Precising Definition: Its purpose is to reduce the vagueness of a word.
4. Theoretical Definition: Assigns a meaning to a word by suggesting a theory that gives a certain characterization to the entities that the term denotes.
5. Persuasive Definition: Its purpose is to engender a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward what is denoted by the difiniendum.
• Difiniendum: Words to be defined
• Definiens: Words that do the defining.
Criteria for Lexical Definitions:
3. Rule #3: A Lexical Definition Should Be Neither Too Broad nor Too Narrow.
1. Too Broad: The definiens includes too much.
2. Too Narrow: The definiens includes too little.
4. Rule #4: A Lexical Definition Should Avoid Circularity.
1. Circular: When the definiendum is defined in terms of itself, or virtually in terms of itself.
5. Rule #5: A Lexical Definition Should Not Be Negative When It Can Be Affirmative.
6. Rule #6: A Lexical Definition Should Avoid Figurative, Obscure, Vague, or Ambiguous Language.
1. Figurative: If it involves metaphors or tends to paint a picture instead of exposing the essential meaning of a term.
2. Obscure: If its meaning is hidden as a result of defective or inappropriate language.
3. Vague: If it lacks precision or it its meaning is blurred—that is, if there is no way of telling exactly what class of things the definiens refers to.
4. Ambiguous: If it lends itself to more than one distinct interpretation.
1. Genuine (factual): In obviously genuine disputes, the parties explicitly and unambiguously disagree, either in belief or attitude.
• Matter of fact.
2. Merely Verbal (definitional): Merely verbal disputes arise when a key term in the disputants’ formulation of their beliefs is ambiguous, or when a phrase or word that is central in the dispute has different senses that may be equally legitimate but that ought not to be confused.
• Both parties have different senses or beliefs.
3. Apparently Verbal