Terrorism Essay

Words: 1805
Pages: 8

TUTORIAL 2: “Terrorism has many causes, but the primary one is economic….” (G.Kolko,2006). Assess the validity of the above contention.

Terrorism can be defined vary widely, but they start from a common point of departure. Terrorism is characterized strongly by the use of violence. This tactic of violence takes of many forms and often indiscriminately targets non-combatants. The purpose for which violence is used, and its root causes is where many arguments about terrorism started. The term of terrorism actually described about violence that happened during the French Revolution. But, from time to time, terrorism has come to mean the use of violence by small groups which anti-government or against the ruling of government to achieve political change as what they demand. As for United States Department of Defense defines terrorism as the calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear, intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological. Within this definition, there are three key elements which are violence, fear, and intimidation and each element produce terror in its victims. Terrorism also can be defined as criminal act that influences an audience beyond the immediate victim. The strategy of terrorists is to commit acts of violence that draws the attention of the local populace, the government, and the world to their cause. The terrorists plan their attack to obtain the greatest publicity, choosing targets that symbolize what they oppose. The effectiveness of the terrorist act lies not in the act itself, but in the public’s or government’s reaction to the act. For example, in 1972 at the Munich Olympics, the Black September Organization killed 11 Israelis. The Israelis were the immediate victims. But the true target was the estimated 1 billion people watching the televised event.

One of the primary reasons that motivate the globalized terrorist violence is economic. Some see economic aspect as the crucial motivation factor in the use of violence to effect political change. Although globalization provides access to a world market for goods and services, the net result has also been perceived as a form of Western economic imperialism. The USA and the post-industrial states of Western Europe form the global North or economic ‘core’ that dominates international economic institutions such as the World Bank, which they sets exchange rates, and determines fiscal policies. The actions and policies can be unfavorable to the underdeveloped countries, or global souths that comprise the periphery or gap. Political decisions by the leaders of underdeveloped countries to deregulate or privatize industries to be competitive globally may lead to a significant social and economic upheaval. When these things happened, loyalty of the citizens will fade away and encourage them to do illegal activities such as terrorism if the state breaks its social contract with them.

Wealth is also linked to personal security and violence. With little possible opportunity to obtain wealth locally, individuals will leave to pursue opportunities elsewhere. The result is emigration and/or the rapid growth oh burgeoning urban centres that act as regional hubs for the global resources. Movement, however, is no guarantee that individual aspirations will be realized. In that case, individuals may turn to violence for criminal because of personal gain or political change which is will cause them to change the existing political system through insurgency or terrorism. Paradoxically, rising standards of living and greater access to educational opportunities associated with globalization may lead to increased expectations. If those expectations are not being considered or taken into any actions by the government, individuals can turn to extreme political views and action against ‘ the system’ that denies them the…