Table of Contents
What is Critical Reading? 5
Patterns of Elements 5
Non-critical Reading 5
Goals of Critical Reading 5
Recognizing What a Text Says, Does, and Means 6
Tools of Critical Reading 6 Diction 7 Critical Analysis 7
Steps of Critical Reading 8 Recognizing a Text as a Presentation 8 Describing the Nature of These Aspects of the Text 8 Inferring the Underlying Assumptions and Perspectives of the Discussion 8
Critical Reading vs. Critical Thinking 9 How Well Does The Text Do What It Does? 10
What is Critical Thinking? 10 Rationality 11 Self-awareness 11 Honesty 11 Open-mindedness 11 Discipline 11 Judgment 11
Strategies for Critical Reading 12 13 14
Reading and Writing 15 Improving reading 15 Improving Writing 15 Reading and Writing Grammar 15 Speaking Constructions 16 Reading and Writing Constructions 16 Ambiguity 16 Structure and Meaning 16
Ways to Read and Discuss Text 17 Different Ways of Reading for Different Occasions 17 Restatement: Reading What a Text Says 18 Description: Describing What a Text Says 18 Interpretation: Analyzing What a Text Says 23
Descriptive Formats 19 Relationship Model 21 Rhetorical Model 22 Role Model 22 Task Model 22 Inference 23 Words 25 Academic vs. Informational Discussion 26 Evolving Language 26 Inference: The Process 27 Inference and Analysis 26 Inference Equations 28 Denotation 28
Figurative Language 29 Implications for Reading and Writing 29
What Examples are Examples of 30 Conclusion vs. Example 31 Numbers as Examples 31 Examples from the Writers Point of View 32 Examples from the Readers Point of View 32
Choices 33 The Ingredients of Texts 33 The Choice of Content 34 Patterns of Content 34 The Choice of Language 35 The Choice of Structure 35
Complete Reference: The Noun Phrase 37 Full References 37
Nouns 38 Noun Pre-Modifiers 38 Noun Post-Modifiers 39 Subject and Predicate 41 Compounding Elements 42 Sentence Modifiers 43 Predicate Modifiers 44 Sentence and Predicate Modifiers 46 Simple, Compound, and Complex Sentences 46
Inserts 47 Special Aspects of Inserts 48 Punctuation and Levels of Insertion 49
Comma Review 50
What is Critical Reading?
Critical reading is when the reader re-reads the text to identify patterns of elements. It involves bringing outside knowledge and values to evaluate the presentation and decide what to accept as true. To read critically, you must recognize and analyze evidence on the page. Patterns of Elements
• Language usage Non-critical reading
Recognizing what the text says about a topic
• Make sense of the presentation as a sequence of thoughts.
• Understand the information, ideas, and options. http://www.criticalreading.com Goals of Critical Reading
To recognize the author’s purpose - involves inferring a basis for choices of content and language.
To understand tone and persuasive elements - involves classifying the nature of language choices.
To recognize bias - involves classifying the nature of patterns of choice of content and language http://www.criticalreading.com/critical_reading.htm Recognizing What a Text Says, Does, and MeansTools of critical reading
What to look for (analysis) — involves recognizing those aspects of a discussion that control the meaning.
How to think about what you find (Inference) — involves the processes of inference, the interpretation of data from within the text.
Irony, Sarcasm, Humor
Evidence and audience
Recognizing a writers voice
Point of view and purpose
Assessing argument – what a