Climate change is occurring in many countries, it causes some negative effects. Firstly, sea level rise is an issue for people who live in coastal urban areas. Hunt, A & Watkiss (2011, cited in Mcgranahan et al, 2006) reports that people more concentrated on urban settlements tend for cities which in low-lying coastal zones and the number of populations are more than 5 million in these zones. It may lead to cost of economy and water supply shortage. For instance, sea level rise transform freshwater into salt water. Therefore, this has already impacted on people’s using freshwater. In addition, water shortage is another issue of climate change. Hunt, A & Watkiss (2011, cited in WGII, 2007) reports that freshwater is effected on climate change, which are semi-arid and arid areas. Consequently, river flow decrease and water supply decline. Those issues could bring about lack of water supply, this also impact irrigation of agricultural and human health. Thirdly, climate change converts weather patterns. Hunt, A & Watkiss (2011, cited in ABI, 2005) estimates that in 2080s, the USA will increase the cost of insurance in hurricane by 75%. Severe weather could result in significant disasters, such as storms, floods and drought. As a result, those might be loss of economy.
The strategy of mitigation is to reduce greenhouse-gas emission. Mitigation can be defined as reducing emission to improve climate change. In developed countries where waste is a significant problem. For example, people who live in developed countries dumped the rubbish which can be reuse things. Furthermore, people who live in developing countries also produce waste. However, most of them reuse and recycle the waste. By doing this, energy could be efficiently used and this also can reduce emission. In addition, this strategy includes the greener cities and reducing carbon emission. For instance, City Hall’s ‘green roof’ means to reduce the temperature of building and also decrease the need of energy (The Economist, 2011). Green Building also can reduce the greenhouse-gas emission. Asia-Pacific Human Development Report (n.d) states that Green Mark is recognised new building which have friendly feature to environment for Building and Construction Authority (BCA). Besides, hybrid vehicle can make less consumption of energy. This strategy can reduce the cost of energy and effect of climate change.
Another strategy is adaptation to improve facilities. Improving facilities means offer services that can avoid some disasters. For example, due to sea level rise, people build the walls or dykes to avoid the harm. But climate change becomes more and worse, government improve management of dykes. Although people who live in developed countries have better services, people live in developing countries have different treatment. Moreover, poor communities have solved problems, such as raise the plinths and contingency projection for evacuation (Asia-Pacific Human Development Report, n.d). In addition, improving infrastructure also is an