The rise of Industrial Society in the West
I. The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain
(Principles of hard working people) Cultural factors like the Protestants work ethic could be factors to the industrial revolution.
(Need for food) Due to industrialization, food became cheap and British agriculture could now feed more people with less labor.
(Wealth and investment willing people) An increase in national wealth due to two centuries of trade allowed Britain to purchase industrial machinery. Also, the central banks provided flexible credit facilities.
(Natural Resources) Natural resources like Coal and Iron ore were abundant in Britain, making the manufacturing process rapid.
(Exportation) British exports quadrupled due to their manufactured goods. The invention of the steam engine enabled a demand for Coal. Britain abundant in coal became a provider for countries. Furthering the development of an Iron industry, production of machinery, and the railroad.
II. The Spread of the Industrial Revolution
USA borrowed from great Britain at first to applicate machinery to production. But later surpassed Britain in technical achievements.
The need for transportation became an issue in the USA, limiting its economic development by making the transport of goods expensive. The start of the railroad with 100 miles in 1830. More than 27,000 miles of railroad track were laid 30 years after.
A. New Products and New Patterns
The industrial Revolution made people believe that they could change the world through these new inventions. Iron was replaced by steel enabling far more advance in construction and machinery. By 1913 32 million tons of steel was produced.
1. The Invention of Electricity
Electricity helped improve; Communication (Radio & Telephone), Transportation (Street Cars, Subways); Factories (New Machinery)
2. The Internal Combustion Engine
Made the improvements for ships, fleets, cars by switching from coal to Oil.
Airplanes and Automobiles were products from this discovery. Hendry Ford presented the “T” model. Producing more than 735,000 Cars a year by 1916. 1919 the first regular passenger air service was established.
3. Trade and Manufacturing
The competition for promoting domestic demand allowed for an increase in wages in Britain and Germany. Decline in food, transportation, and manufactured goods made it easier for Europeans to by consumer goods.
B. Toward a World Economy
The ease of transportation and the demand for exotic goods from all parts of the world allowed for a world system in which nations interacted and traded with one another for goods. Driving a world economy.
III. The Structure of Mass Society
Industrialization brought commodities to the working class. Such as voting, improved standards of living, education. The consequence was Urbanization and rapid population. Governments in Germany and Britain constructed cheap living for working class. Expanded means of communication also meant that there would be people trying to misuse this power to manipulate.
A. Social Structures
(Upper Class) In Europe Wealthy elites called the bourgeoisie started to uniting with new elites; aristocrats.
1. A New Middle Class
Below upper class are the lawyers, doctors, civil servants, industrialists, and merchants.
Lower end of the middle class are the shop keepers traders, manufacturers, and prosperous peasants.
Successful members preached worldview top their children, upper, and lower classes of their society.
European middle class believed in hard work and Christian Morals.
2. The Working Class
80 Percent of European population. Many working class members sought housing and education for their children, patterning themselves to the middle class. Raise in wages and decline in food costs allowed for leisure expenses. Children as young as six years old began work before dawn.
B. Changing Roles for Woman
Woman though told and taught to traditional roles of homemaking, began working in white