I choose to write about Cocaine and Caffeine.
Cocaine and caffeine are both stimulants and have similar effects on the brain. They provide us with energy to reduce fatigue, and heightened mental alertness. One of the major differences is that cocaine is illegal, while on the other hand caffeine is legal.
Cocaine is derived from small leaves of the cocoa shrub. (Levinthal, 2012).There is three commonly used routes for administration. Which include snorting through the nose, injections, and smoking? The effect of the drug depends solely on the route chosen. If injected intravenously or smoke there is an extremely intense effect that is felt within a matter of seconds and lasts only five or ten minutes. If the drug is snorted through the nose the effect is less intense but lasting longer fifteen to thirty minutes (Levinthal, 2012). Regardless of the route or frequency of use, cocaine abusers can experience acute cardiovascular or cerebrovascular emergencies, such as a heart attack or stroke, which may cause sudden death. (NIDA)
Long term effects from using cocaine include addiction, causing psychological, family and emotional problems. Also increased irritability, disturbed moods, paranoia, restlessness and auditory hallucinations are also effects. Cocaine is a strongly addictive drug and causes major dependence on the person using.
According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health estimates that in 2010 there were 1.5 million cocaine users aged 12 or older, roughly 0.6 percent of the U.S. population. These estimates were similar to the number and rate in 2009 (1.6 million or 0.7 percent), but were lower than the estimates in 2006 (2.4 million or 1.0 percent).3(NSDUH)
The extensive abuse of cocaine has lead to efforts to develop treatment programs for this type of drug abuse. Prevention programs can help to prevent any addiction and rehab programs and support from family and friends play an important role to any recovery. The National Institute on Drug Abuse funded researchers are also looking at medications that help alleviate the severe craving that people in treatment for cocaine addiction often experience. Several medications are currently being investigated for their safety and efficacy in treating cocaine addiction. Vigabatrin, modafinil, tiagabine, disulfiram and topiramate show promise in controlled clinical trials (NIDS).
Caffeine is a bitter substance that acts as a stimulant drug. Caffeine is found in varying quantities in the seeds, leaves, and fruit of some plants. Caffeine is considered the most commonly used psychoactive drug in the world (Kovacs, 2008). Caffeine is found in coffee, tea, soft drinks, chocolate, kola nuts, energy drinks and certain medicines.
Caffeine has many effects on our body such as stimulating the central nervous system causing a boost of energy and making you more alert. Some people can be sensitive to the effects causing you to feel anxious, restless and increased irritability. Other effects of too much caffeine in your diet can keep you from falling asleep, headaches and abnormal heart problems. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the American Medical Association classify a "moderate intake" of caffeine as "generally recognized as safe (Kovacs,2008).
There are many controversies and myths regarding whether caffeine is addicting. According to the American Psychiatric Association called the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The DSM-IV does not classify substances as addictive but instead sets the criteria for substance dependence, including: (1) tolerance; (2) substance-specific