Hydraulic Fracturing Who wouldn’t want cheaper gasoline or cheaper oil to heat their houses? The opportunity for cheaper fuel is definitely an option but at what cost to our health and to the environment. The process for getting this cheaper fuel is called “Hydraulic Fracturing” or “Fracking”. There are two main views, one it provides fuel at a cheaper cost and the second opinion is that it is harmful to the environment and we shouldn’t continue fracking. The United States should continue to harvest shale gas, but should take further actions to regulate how it is retrieved, to ensure that the process is safe for the environment, and to the people that live around the wells. In order to understand the different sides against and for fracking we must first examine the process used to mine for shale gas. Fracking is the process of using water and other chemicals to retrieve shale gas from the earth’s interior. The process starts with a hole being drilled thousands of feet down into the earth surface, followed by horizontal drilling through the shale (Challener). The horizontal drilling is where the fracking takes place; millions of liters of water mixed with sand and various chemicals are pumped into the shale under extreme pressure causing the rock to fracture leaving the gas well open, releasing that gas and oil once the water/chemical solution has been removed (Challener). As you can imagine when you start introducing non-organic chemicals to the environment there are going to be people and organizations that don’t agree with the process. One of the biggest concerns that has comes from the process of hydraulic fracturing is its effect on natural groundwater. A study was conducted by health scientist, Heather Avens and her colleagues on the effects on surface spills in the fracking industry from July 1, 2010 through July 2, 2011(New). In their research they studied data provided to them from the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission and addressed potential contamination from benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene or BTEX (New). After their research was finished they found that only 77 surface spills affected groundwater in Weld County (which has over 18,000 active wells)(New). During these spills an average of seven 55 gallon drums were spilled and had a contamination zone on average of 197 cubic meters at approximately 2 meters in depth. Overall, fracking sounds pretty safe, out of 18,000 active wells, there were only 77 surface spill accidents, which totals about 0.4% of the active wells and not to mention that almost all of the spills were due to equipment malfunction and not human error. While some would argue that fracking is pretty safe from the numbers provided by Avers’ study, other groups have something else to say about fracking’s safe practices. Activist say fracking causes dangerous health concerns to the people who live near these fracking operations. In article called “How to Fight Fracking” by Jean Louis Deveau, he claims that it takes enough water and chemicals to fill seven Olympic size swimming pools to frack one gas well (Deveau). Deveau also states that after the pressure has been released that two-thirds of the water/chemical mix stays down in the well and that the one-third that returns to the surface is toxic, untreatable water (Deveau). Deveau also goes on say that this one-third toxic untreatable water that returns to the surface has caused over 1,000 allegations in the US of ground or surface water contamination either above or below ground (Deveau). Not only does the escaped toxic, non-treatable water affect the groundwater but Deveau quotes Theo Colburn, an American endocrinologist, saying that 75% of the chemicals used in fracking disrupt sensory organs and respiratory gastrointestinal system. Activist are mostly concerned with the problems to the environment and the health of people who live around these wells, but Deveau does go on to state…
good for the state of WV is that our drinking water is not affected by fracking fluids. According to an article “Federal Study: No Evidence Fluids Contaminated Drinking Water” (Federal) on the WV Oil and Natural Gas
Association website, “After a year of monitoring, researchers found that chemical-laced fluids used to free gas trapped deep below the surface stayed thousands of feet below shallower areas that supplied drinking water according to Richard Hammack.”
families in the area, who seemed to assimilate into western culture as quickly as possible, my parents
made our home a “Little India”. They gave us all Indian names, which had meanings in Sanskrit: Saroj,
lotus flower; Susheela, well-behaved; Nalini, water lily; Vinay, gentleness; Mohan, charmer. Even our
dog and cats had Indian names: Tipu, Manya, Nisha. At dinnertime, we sat on the kitchen floor and ate
May 10, 2008
Indian food with our fingers, my mom circling the six of…
9 February 2015 6072522017
Water has been the center of growth since far beyond the existence of mankind. Traditions have proven the importance of water through anecdotal experiences as well as through trial and error. Such examples are perceived time and time again. It is constantly proven that water is the source of our survival.
NO TITLES IN PARAGRAPHS JUST REFER AUTHOR AT THE END OF EVERY PARAGRAPH IN PARENTHESES IF NOT MENTIONED WITHIN Water is essential to life. Humans, along…
deltas. The method that could make this rock useful hasn’t been a reality until just recently. The method is hydraulic fracturing or otherwise known as “fracking”. First, the drilling starts and a crane drills vertically deep into the earth. Once it reaches the desired depth, the drill turns at a ninety-degree angle and drills horizontally. Then, the fracking begins. A fluid containing water and sand along with chemicals are injected at high pressure to break up the rock and release the gas. The idea…
Hydraulic fracturing Impact and Analysis
The modern day definition of hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, is the forcing open of fissures in subterranean rocks by introduction of liquid/solid mixtures at high pressure in order to extract oil or natural gas from the rock formation or shale. Typically the liquid that is used in fracking is a mixture of water, sand, and other various chemicals that could be hazardous. This mixture is introduced into a wellbore, or a hole in the earth’s surface that…
to assist the client who is interesting in making ethical investment. This report focuses on environmental concern with pollution and the financial performance. The results indicate Santos did not perform ethically. The way of fracking could cause water pollution as well as fracking would endanger the health of human beings. In terms of financial performance, analyzing of financial performance of share price history over five past years indicated decrease.
Overall, the graph shows that the share…
The oil and gas industry has been rapidly expanding since the introduction of hydraulic fracturing – or fracking. The increased use of fracking has created hazardous living conditions for communities around the drilling sites. Fracking poses a threat to the health of humanity and the environment and should not be used as a way to retrieve resources.
Hydrofracking is the injection of fluids – water mixed with sand and other chemicals – into a previously drilled well in order to open the…
Abstract: The oil and gas industry has been using hydraulic fracturing (also known as hydrofracturing and fracking) a way to boost hydrocarbon production since1947. Recent advances in fracturing technologies are responsible for the latest hydrocarbon production boom in the U.S. The process of hydro fracturing is where fluids are pumped at high pressure underground to fracture a formation and release trapped oil and gas. This paper reviews the process of hydraulic fracturing…
People drink water every day. It is critical for survival to be hydrated. It is possible to survive weeks without food, but only a few days without adequate water. Even though seventy-five percent of the earth is covered in water, less than three percent of that is clean enough for humans to consume (Connally. 2012). Most of the water that humans consume comes in the form of bottled water (Connally. 2012). Most bottles are made from plastic, sometimes recycled. These bottles are not meant to be…
the vapor and liquid tray hydraulics parameters for sieve type crossflow distillation trays. Tricia and Khanh ran the fluid flow apparatus to determine the operating characteristics of the Venturi and orifice meters.
Day 2 of the experiment was performed on April 23, 2013. More testing was done on both apparatus’ in order to obtain enough data for error propagation.
Experiment 1: Fluid Flow Meters and Tray Hydraulics