1) Hydrologic cycle
Evaporation – water turning from a liquid to a gas
Run-off – movement of water downhill through infiltration to a larger body of water
Precipitation – the formation of a liquid from the gas state
Condensation – the change from a gaseous form to a liquid
Sublimation – the change from a solid to a gas skipping the liquid form
Infiltration – the process of water from the ground entering the soil
2) Greenhouse effect (CO2 and water vapor do the most radiation trapping)
Short wave radiation is the high frequency radiation emitted by the sun
Long wave radiation is the low frequency radiation emitted by the earth after it has absorbed the short wave radiation from the sun in order to create the heat energy needed to warm the earth. Earth would be very cold and uninhabitable without the sun.
High frequency (UV) rays heat the earth and create energy for life. Atmosphere holds in enough to sustain life, but also blocks the sun from heating too much.
About ½ gets absorbed, some bounce off earth, some bounces off atmosphere (in and out of)
3) Keeling Curve (1958) (Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii)
Measures the levels of CO2 in the atmosphere
Levels change with the seasons. Summer and Spring more CO2 is absorbed by plants, winter and fall they die and release that CO2 into the air.
Curve is opposite with the hemispheres average PPM (atmospheric parts per million) = 393
4) Air mass map cA continental arctic (very cold, very dry) Moscow, Russia cP continental polar (cold, dry) Chicago IL cT continental tropical (hot, dry) Santa Domingo, Dominican Republic cA continental arid (hot, dry) Cairo, Egypt mT maritime tropical (warm, humid) Ecuador City, Ecuador mP maritime polar (cool, humid) Seattle WA
5) Hadley Cell Model and World Climate Zone map
6) Three forms of energy transfer
Conduction: the transfer of heat from a solid to a solid like touching a hot stove top with your hand. It is important in the atmosphere only in the “contact layer”, or the lowest 1 inch of the air.
Convection: boiling a pot of water, the warm air moves out which causes it to boil. Convection is very important in the troposphere (thunderstorms are a form of convection). Fluid transfers
Radiation: The transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves, which can travel through empty space. An old school radiator. The cold is sucked in through the bottom of it while heat is emitted out of the radiator to heat the room.
7) The Surface Map Model
Pressure, Temperature, Wind, Humidity, Cloud cover, Precipitation type and amount, Visibility (distance one can see horizontally)
8) Earth and Sun Seasonal Relationship
Perihelion: Earth and sun are closer than any other time of the year in January
Aphelion: Earth and sun are furthest than any other time of the year in July
Solstice - “Sun standing still”
Summer solstice in northern hemisphere June 21st - longest day of the year
Sun is directly overhead Tropic of Cancer at 23 degrees North latitude.
Winter solstice - sun stands still over the southern hemisphere. It becomes their summer and our winter.
Sun is directly overhead Tropic of Capricorn at 23 degrees South latitude
Chicago gets less than 9 hours sunlight
Shortest day of the year is Dec 21st or first day of winter
Equinox: equal nights around the world, occurs on March 21st (1st day spring) and September 21st (first day fall)
Sun shines directly on equator
9) Frontal Identification and Explanation
Warm front: temperatures will rise as the air mass moves in. Slower, less steep, and less severe than cold fronts. Warm moist air is being forced up and over the top of a cooler denser air mass producing flatter, layered clouds. Usually moister airmass that eventually leads to the lower clouds, higher relative humidity, and better chance of precipitation. Winds