Essay on World Civilization Study Final

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World Civ Finals study guide

1) Chapter 5
a) Augustus (63 B.C. – 14 A.D.)
i) “Exalted one” ii) Laid the foundation for a stable government
(1) Left senate in place
(2) Created a civil service to enforce laws
(3) Gave men jobs for talent, not class
(4) Allowed provinces in Rome to have self-government iii) Economic reforms
(1) Ordered a census (population count)
(2) Set up postal service
(3) Issued coins to make trade easier iv) First emperor
b) Pax Romana
i) “Roman Peace” ii) 200 year span from Augustus to Marcus Aurelis iii) Roman rule brought peace, order, unity, and prosperity to lands stretching from Euphrates River in the east to Britain in the west
c) Peter
i) First Pope ii) Greatest apostle iii) Goes to Rome iv) Killed by Nero
v) Knew Christ personally
d) Paul
i) A Jew from Asia Minor ii) Played the most influential role in spreading Christianity iii) Throughout his teachings and writings, Paul spread Christianity after his death iv) Leader of the church
v) Killed by Nero vi) Knew Jesus personally
e) Jesus (born in 4 BC)
i) If you don’t know who Jesus is quit now
f) Barbarians
i) Germanic tribes ii) Outskirts of rome
2) Chapter 9
a) Justinian
i) Emperor during the Byzantine empire’s golden age ii) Created Justinian’s Code
(1) Included laws passed by Roman assemblies or decreed by Roman emperors
(2) Legal writings of Roman judges
(3) handbook for students
(4) Christ’s co-worker
(5) Built the Hagia Sophia
b) Constantinople
i) Capital of the eastern Roman empire ii) Crossroads of land and sea routes iii) Earned great wealth from trade
c) Great Schism
i) Split between eastern and western Christianity
d) Eastern Orthodox Church
i) Byzantine Church
(1) Byzantine clergy can marry
(2) Language of church is Greek
(3) Easter > Christmas
(4) NO pope, but they have a patriarch
e) Patriarch
i) The male head of a family or tribe.
f) Steppe
i) An open, treeless grassland ii) Pasture from the herds and horses of nomadic people iii) Major area of Russia iv) Mongols originate from here
g) Kiev
i) The capital of present-day Ukraine (might actually be part of present-day Russia now because present-day Russia is an ass) ii) Center of the first Russian states
h) Mongols
i) Nasty, brutal ii) Take over Russia
(1) Results in cutting Asia out of the Renaissance
i) Golden Horde
i) Mongol army led by Batu, the grandson of Genghis ii) Referred to as golden because of the color of their tents iii) Looted and burned Kiev and other Russian towns
j) Moscow
i) Near important river trade routes ii) Political and religious center of Russia iii) Replaces Kiev

k) Ivan the Great
i) Ivan III ii) Recovered much of the territory that had fallen into Lithuanian control iii) Built framework for absolute rule iv) First Czar
v) Limits noble power
l) Ivan the Terrible
i) Wins a great battle and gets the name “Ivan the Terrible” because he is the “bad” ruler in a good way ii) Became paranoid and trusted no one iii) Killed his son iv) Started a secret police (similar to the Gestapo)
v) First officially crowned “Czar”
m) Balkan Peninsula
i) Roughly triangular arm of land, often simply called the Balkans ii) Juts southward into the Mediterranean iii) PERFECT for trade iv) Many wars over this land
n) Poland-Lithuania
i) Started out as a monarchy and switched to noble power
o) Hungary
i) Roman Catholic ii) Monarchy iii) Monarchy declined because nobles gained power iv) Overran by Mongols
p) Magyars
i) Nomadic people ii) Had raided Europe from the Asain steppes iii) Settled in Hungary
q) Golden Bull of 1222
i) Charter that the Hungarian King was forced to sign ii) Recognized nobles’ rights
(1) Strictly limited royal power
(2) Destroys absolute power in Poland, Lithuania, and Hungary
r) Eastern Europe has many struggles in advancing as Western Europe grows
3) Chapter 7
a) Clovis
i) First Frankish King ii) Takes over Gaul iii) Converts to