A&P 1 Study Guide Essay

Submitted By Tammy43
Words: 2080
Pages: 9

Objective 1
Anatomy Describes the structures of the body, and physiology is the study of how those structures function.
Gross Anatomy-(Macroscopic anatomy) examines large, visible structures.
Microscopic anatomy-examines cells and molecules

1. Chemical Level-Examines atoms and how they combine to form the molecules of the human body (water, sugar, protein, DNA). Atoms are the smallest chemical units.
2. Cellular Level-Examines cells (the most basic structural and functional unit of any living thing). Groups of atoms, molecules, and organelles working together.
3. Tissue Level-Examines the 4 types of tissues (group of two or more cells of similar function or origin working together).
4. Organ Level-Examines organs (a structure composed of at least 2 major tissue types) and their specific function for the body.
5. Organ System Level-Examines how 2 or more organs work together, each with a specific function, to accomplish a common purpose Humans have 11 organ systems.
6. Organism Level-Examines how all of the organ systems function together to promote life. A human is an organism.

Objective 2
Homeostasis- Is all body systems working together to maintain a stable internal environment. Systems respond to external and internal changes to function within a normal range. (Body temperature, fluid balance)
Negative Feedback- describes a process by which bodily systems maintain their normal environments or states. Homeostasis describes the body's overall regulation of its internal systems. When changes in a state such as body temperature occur, negative feedback responses are triggered to bring the temperature back to its normal point. For example, if the body becomes too hot, sweating occurs to cool it. If the body becomes too cold, shivering is one response that helps to warm it up.
The ideal state of a bodily system is called the set point, but negative feedback in homeostasis can't keep systems exactly at the set point. Instead, negative feedback in homeostasis acts to keep body temperature, for instance, within what is called a normal range. There are often three parts to a negative feedback response, which are called the receptor, control center, and the effector. The receptor is the part of the feedback response that simply detects changes. This information is passed along to the control center, which monitors the changes and begins a negative feedback response when the changes fall too far outside of the normal range. When that happens, the control center signals an effector to take action that will help return the system toward its set point.

Objective 3
Matter-Anything that takes up space and has mass States of Matter Solid-constant volume and shape Liquid- constant volume but changes shape Gas- changes volume and shape
Elements-a pure substance composed of atoms of only one kind, they are determined by their atomic number, the atomic number is = to the number of protons.
Isotopes-are the specific version of an element based on its mass number. Mass number=number of protons plus the number of neutrons.
Only neutrons are different because the number of protons determines the element.
Proton-are found in nucleus, they have a positive charge, and 1 mass unit.
Neutron-are found in the nucleus, they have a neutral charge, and 1 mass unit.
Electron-within the electron cloud, has a negative charge, has a low mass, and is in constant motion.

Objective 4
Electrons determine reactivity of the atom.
The electron cloud contains shells or (energy levels) that hold a maximum number of electrons. Lower shell fills first Outer shell is the Valance shell and it determines bonding.
Chemical Bonds form Molecules and/or Compounds
Molecules-Two or more atoms joined by strong bonds
Compounds-Two or more atoms of different elements joined by strong or weak bonds.
All Compounds are Molecules
Not all Molecules are Compounds
Chemical Bonds involve the sharing, gaining, and losing of