Z Hotel Tourism Essay

Submitted By janemoss
Words: 3678
Pages: 15

Tourism development: is the process by which a destination area provides facilities and services for visitors, whether on business or at leisure , as a way of securing economic and social benefits. According to Page and Connell destinations move through a cycle of development which lead to a stage of consolidation (at least) or decline (at worst) and where a catalyst for change can be mobilized, rejuvenation may occur to try and find a new economic rationale for such areas. Please see below the TALC theory (tourist area life cycle) which illustrates this cycle. Sharperley states that there essentially four theories relating to development, modernisation theory, dependency theory, economic neoliberalism, alternative development. The modernisation theory suggests that all countries/societies eventually become modern and that the process of becoming modern can be speeded up by the introduction of an economic sector. Such as tourism which stimulates other sectors of the economy. This is a useful means of explaining the development of the resorts as a vehicle for wider development of the destination area. The dependency theory means that essentially underdevelopment in some countries is caused r maintained by their dependent relationship with (and exploitation by) other, richer countries. The polititical economy of the international tourism system is considered by some to be a manifestation of the dependency theory. Economic neoliberalism refers to international lending programmes that require recipient countries to liberalise their economies. This has often resulted in a worsening of local conditions . Alternative development contrasts with the other three theories which promote economic growth, alternative development represents a ‘bottom up’, grassroots approach to development which focuses upon the satisfaction of peoples basic needs. Importantly, alternative development provides the basis for the concept of sustainable development, which has environmental sustainability at its core A feature of the development of tourism in some locations is the obsolescence of the once popular accommodation stock, now being put to alternative uses or pulled down. Political and economic stability have an effect on the development of tourism in the generating area and destination. At any time specific changes in tax policies, the value of currency and controls on tourist spending can affect tourists travelling from a country. Similarly, price , competition and the quality or popularity of the product can influence the development of a destination area. History has shown that such aspects can be susceptible to rapid change and greatly alter the tourism industry. When all of these are added to changing consumer tastes and fashion it can be seen why tourism can be volatile .globalizations and a greater competition for tourism means places have to stay ahead of the game through reinvestment to try and anticipate trends and to avoid areas losing their economic rationale once they lose popular appeal. Once tourism has become a mainstay of many communities, often over a long time frame, adaption and change can be a difficult process. The author will discuss further the theories and concepts relating to tourism development and the negative ,and positive effects of tourism development in some pro poor areas, along with sustainable tourism in the next section.
Sustainable tourism can be defined as:-
"Tourism that takes full account of its current and future economic, social and environmental impacts, addressing the needs of visitors, the industry, the environment and host communities"
Hall and Richards (2006) state that as tourism becomes increasingly important to communities around the world the need to develop tourism sustainably becomes a primary concern. Human communities represent both a primary resource upon which tourism depends, and their existence in a particular place at a particular time