-With the end of the civil war there can new problems:
-Where were all the men returning from the war going to work?
-How was the south rebuilt?
-What would be the relationship with freed blacks be in the south?
-How to convert factories that had been making war materials into peace time production?
-How would southern states be re admitted back into the union?
-How to protect the rights of freed blacks in the south?
President Lincoln's plan
-Lincoln issues the "proclamation of amnesty and reconstruction" (December 8,1863)
-Replace majority rule with "loyal rule" in the south
-He didn't consult congress regarding reconstruction
-Pardon to all but the highest ranking military and civilian confederate officers
-When 10% of the voting population in the 1860 election has taken an oath of loyalty and established a government, it would be recognized and allowed back into the union
1864-> "Lincoln governments" were formed in Louisiana, Tennessee, and Arkansas (under the 10% plan) before the end of the war
-These governments were weak and dependent on the northern army for their survival
-Southern states felt "once a state always a state" their governments had not destroyed by the war
But, on the other side were northern avengers and reformers. The most powerful were known as "radical republicans"
They were bitter against the south and wanted to punish white southerners, radical republicans felt that by seceding, southern states had given up their state rights. The south should be treated as a conquered province
-The two most powerful republicans were Charles sumner (senate) and Thaddeus Stevens (House of representatives)
Wads-Davis Bill-proposed by the radical republicans
-Required 50% of the number of 1860 voters to take an "iron clad" oath of allegiance (swearing they has never voluntarily aided the rebellion)
-Required a state constitutional convention before the election of state officials
-Enacted specific safeguards of freed men's liberties
With the assassination of Lincoln, a stream of tolerance and mercy vanished and southern hopes for a peaceful transition back into the union faded
On the morning of April 15, 1865, Andrew Johnson was sworn in as the new president
Johnson was detested in the north and distrusted in the south
Johnson lacked Lincoln's wit,tact,warmth, mad wisdom
He quickly declared his intention to follow Lincoln's plans for reconstruction
As part of their reconstruction, southern states had to incorporate the 13th amendment into their new state constitutions before they could be re admitted to the union
Civil rights bill of 1866
Congress followed the freed men's bureau rule bill with the civil rights bill of 1866. This law defined blacks as United States citizens and promised them "full and equal benefits of all laws.. As is enjoyed by white citizens." The bill made it a crime to deprive someone of their civil rights.
Both the freed men's bureau bill and the civil right bill passed congress but were vetoed by president Johnson
He felt the federal government didn't have the constitutional right to interfere within a state to protect civil rights.
Congress passed the bills over the presidents veto, first in US history
Worried that the civil rights acts might be overturned, republicans in congress passed the 14th amendment, which defined citizenship and forbid any state from depriving citizens of their rights and privileges. Tennessee quickly ratified the amendment and was admitted back into the union
Ratified by congress in July 1868
Southern states would be punished for denying the right to vote to black citizens
Angered republicans in congress passed a law that divided the confederacy into five military districts each governed by a union general. President Johnson again vetoed this bill but congress again overrode his veto.