Essay on Ancient Greece and Julius Caesar

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Key Terms for Chapter 4: Classical Civilizations of the Mediterranean

Cyrus the Great-A remarkable leader who managed to reunite he Persian Empire in a powerful kingdom. Under him Persia began building an empire larger than any yet seen in the world, became the successor state to many Mesopotamian empires. He was succeeded by Darius
Pericles- Important leader and warrior in Athens during the Golden Age who strengthened democracy, made it possible for poor people to be in the government of Athens, and said there should be equal justice for all people. Was an aristocrat also. Died during the beginning of Pelopennesian War.
Alexander the Great- Alexander: king of Macedon; conqueror of Greece and Egypt and Persia; founder of Alexandria (356-323 BC)
Hellenistic period- The Hellenistic period describes the era which followed the conquests of Alexander the Great.
Punic Wars-A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.); resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean.
Julius Caesar- Caesar: conqueror of Gaul and master of Italy (100-44 BC
Diocletian and Constantine- A city of northeast Algeria east of Algiers. It was founded by Carthaginians and was the capital and commercial center of Numidia. Destroyed in warfare in a.d. 311, it was rebuilt by Constantine I and named in his honor. Population: 450,000.
Greek city-states- is a city, a city-state and also citizenship and body of citizens. When used to describe Classical Athens and its contemporaries, polis is often translated as "city-state."
Senate- In ancient Rome, the supreme governing body, originally made up only of 300 aristocrats.
Consuls- In the Roman republic, one of the two powerful officials elected each year to command the army and direct the government.
Cicero- Marcus Tullius Cicero was a Roman philosopher, politician, lawyer, orator, political theorist, consul and constitutionalis
Socrates
Plato-Greek philosopher; believed that knowledge based on consideration of ideal forms outside the material world; proposed ideal form of government based on abstract principles in which philosophers ruled. Wrote "The Republic.
Aristotle- Greek philosopher. A pupil of Plato, the tutor of Alexander the Great, and the author of works on logic, metaphysics, ethics, natural sciences, politics, and poetics, he profoundly influenced Western thought. In his philosophical system, which led him to criticize what he saw as Plato's metaphysical excesses, theory follows empirical observation and logic, based on the syllogism, is the essential method of rational inquiry. (Greek Classical Era)
Stoics- a person who can endure pain or hardship without showing their feelings or complaining.
Sophocles-
Greek writer of tragedies; author of Oedipus Rex and Antigone

Iliad- Homer's great epic that tells the story of the Trojan War
Battle of Marathon-The site of the famous battle fought between the armies of Persia and the outnumbered Athenians. Athens was victorious and a messenger (Pheidippides) was sent to run the 26 miles back to the city with the news.
King Xerxes-A Persian king and Son of Darius, amassed an army that outnumbered the Greeks 2 to 1 in order to avenge the Persian loss at the battle of Marathon. Ended up razing and burning Athens to the ground. However his large navy was defeated in a narrow strait at Thermopylae and at the naval battle of Salamis, mainly because of Themistocles genius. Themistocles- Athenian leader in years after Marathon, the man who persuaded Athens to use its windfall silver-mine profit to purchase ships and develop a navy to face the inevitable return of the Persians. He master-minded the naval battle of Salamis
Battle of Thermopylae- This was the battle at which the Greek forces lost. They were led by King Leonidas while Xerxes led the Persian forces. The 300 Spartans lost the battle but they fought to the last man. They ultimately lost the battle because a traitor…