Breast Cancer Fact Sheet 2
Disease/condition: Breast cancer is a type of cancer originating from breast tissue, most commonly from the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supply the ducts with milk.
Etiology: Random changes or a mutation in the body’s DNA, the genetic instructions found in cells that all people are born with is what causes breast cancer to occur. These changes in DNA can be inherited, meaning they are passed down from one generation to another, or acquired, meaning that there is a change in the DNA of one breast cell for reasons that are unclear and unknown.
Signs: Often there are no outward signs of breast cancer that you can see or feel. If there are outward signs, the more common ones include a lump, an area of thickening, or a dimple in the breast. Less common signs include breast swelling and redness or an enlarged underarm lymph node. But even if you have one or more of these signs, it still doesn't mean you have breast cancer. Remember that most breast lumps turn out to be benign.
Symptoms: Early breast cancer usually does not cause symptoms. This is why regular breast exams are important. As the cancer grows, symptoms may include: Breast lump or lump in the armpit that is hard, has uneven edges, and usually does not hurt. Change in the size, shape, or feel of the breast or nipple -- for example, you may have redness, dimpling, or puckering that looks like the skin of an orange fluid coming from the nipple -- may be bloody, clear to yellow, green, and look like pus.
Symptoms of advanced breast cancer may include:
Bone pain, Breast pain or discomfort, Skin ulcers, Swelling in the armpit (next to the breast with cancer), and Weight loss.
Diagnostic Tests: The earlier breast cancer is detected, the better it may be for the patient’s long-term health. There are multiple tests that can be done to help you detect breast cancer: breast self-exam, clinical breast exam, mammogram, breast ultrasound, breast MRI, breast biopsy, and ductal lavage.
Treatments: The type of breast cancer treatment recommended for you will depend on the size of your tumor, the extent of disease in your lymph nodes and/or throughout your body (the stage), and the presence of the HER2 oncogene and endocrine receptors (estrogen and progesterone receptors). Age, menstrual status, underlying health issues, and personal preferences play a role in this decision making process as well.
Prognosis: The prognosis for breast cancer generally depends on its stage and there are typically five stages (0 to 5) with sub-stages.
Reference: Screening for Breast Cancer Feared a Risk Factor. (Includes abstract) Wilson, Debra Rose; Held, Sam; International Journal of Childbirth Education, 2014 Jan; 29 (1): 86-91. (Journal article - pictorial) ISSN: 0887-8625, Database: CINAHL with Full Text
Subjects: Breast Neoplasms Prevention and Control; Mammography; Cancer Screening Methods; Breast Neoplasms Risk Factors
Thrush Fact Sheet 3
Disease/Condition: Thrush: Thrush is a yeast infection in the mouth. It can affect both children and adults.
Etiology: Candida infection is not limited to the mouth; it can occur in other parts of the body as well, causing diaper rash in infants or vaginal yeast infections in women.
Signs: In the mouth your tongue gets a white coating. A yeast infection in a women is when you have an odor coming from you genital area. In baby’s it causing a diaper rash, which is when the baby has red bumps on their butt.
Symptoms: pain or difficulty swallowing, a feeling that food gets stuck in the throat or mid-chest area Fever, if the infection spreads beyond the esophagus. Thrush can spread to other parts of the body, including the lungs, liver, and skin. This happens more often in people with cancer, HIV, or other conditions that weaken the immune system.
Diagnostic Test: Your dentist can diagnose thrush by examining your