Breast cancer is a multifactorial, malignant tumor that initiates in the cell tissue of the breast. A tumor also known, as neoplasm is the unusual, indefinite and rapid growth of tissue in comparison to regular cells, malignant meaning progressively becoming worse in state. Breast cancer occurs in both men and women, although in males it is rare. Breast cancer is usually found as hard, irregular lumps, swelling, dimpling, discharge or pain. The woman’s breast contains glands that create breast milk during and after pregnancy called lobules, tiny tubes called ducts that transport the milk from the lobules to the nipple. One type of cancer occurs within the lining cells of the lobules and ducts in which if the malignant tumorous cells are confined and remain within its origin then it is labelled as non-invasive meaning not tending to spread around unlike invasive meaning spreading. The mutation of the gene BrCa1 can lead to breast cancer. The gene BrCa1 produces proteins that suppress tumors and repair damaged DNA. The gene is located on the longer arm on chromosome seventeen, spanning around 100 kilobases and containing codes for a protein containing thousands of amino acids. If this gene is mutated or altered the damaged DNA could not be repaired, therefore the cells will multiply and can possibly lead to cancer.
Breast cancer is a complex, multifactorial disease. Multifactorial meaning there is a combination between genetic and environmental factors. The risk of breast cancer is high for women who have family history of mutated genes, exposure to radiation, delayed childbirth, and environmental factors such as pollution and lifestyle factors such as obesity. Though the risks, testing is available for women who inherited mutations of the BrCa1 gene. Genetic testing is a type of surveillance option that identifies any mutations in the chromosomes within the body. The results of the test can help identify and confirm if a person has a genetic condition and if they can be treated and cured. Due to testing, many women can be diagnosed within an earlier stage and allow for better treatment options. Treatments to breast cancer are varied and are dependent on the individual. The nature of the treatment will be altered depending on what type of breast cancer it is and the stage you are at when diagnosed. There are six types of treatments; surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, targeted therapy and the biopsy (removal) of the sentinel lymph nodes. All these treatments have side effects and may have to be repeated to gain the desired result.
Privacy involves the rights of a person to control their own personal information and how its used. Genetic information has characteristics that are not similar to other information. Each person’s genetics is unique but also can reveal implications for both generations that precede and succeed. Though implications can be impromptu, sometimes these implications may extend further outside of extended family. Genetic information considers that fact that the information has an implication on his or her genetic relatives, therefore this information belongs to the family