Climate is always changing and many of the observed changes noted above are beyond what can be explains by the natural variability of the climate.
Climate change will increasingly alter the rules for doing business. There will be winning industries and winning companies. There will also be losing ones. Large mainstream investors such as pension funds want to know which companies are the likely winners, and which are the riskier investments in a low-carbon economy. What are the risks that climate change poses for companies and what are companies doing to manage those risks? As with all types of risks, “enterprises in the same industry, facing similar risks, will often choose different risk management actions because different managements have different risk strategies, objectives and tolerances. Risks related to climate change may be physical, regulatory, reputational or legal. Some companies face mitigation risks related to their obligations and expectations about reducing their emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). The risks faced by others may be related more to the impact of climate change on their business operations and the need to adapt accordingly (adaptation-related risks). Companies’ effectiveness in identifying and addressing climate change risks (and opportunities) and their implications for business strategy is itself an important and distinguishing