easy work Essay

Submitted By quebell
Words: 670
Pages: 3

Adjectives

Two Groups
There are two groups of adjectives in Latin:
1. the ones that use the First and Second Declension Endings
2. the ones that use the Third Declension Endings
Dictionary Entry
The dictionary entry for adjectives lists the nominative singular by genders.
Most first and second Declension adjectives are listed by the masculine form followed by the endings -a, -um representing the feminine and neuter nominative singulars. bonus, bona, bonum - good clarus, clara, clarum - famous, clear pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum - beautiful
Since there are three groups of thrid Declension adjectives, the dictionary entry may have the three nominative singular forms, the two nominative singular forms, or one nominative singular form followed by the genitive singular. acer, acris, acre (three nominative endings)- sharp utilis, utile (two nominative endings) - useful audax, audacis (one nominative ending, genitive singular)- bold
Adjective Stem
Finding the Adjective Stem -- a quick rule of thumb is to drop the ending from the feminine singular nominative form except for third Declension adjectives that have only one nominative form for all three genders. For those, drop the genitive singular ending. bonus, bona, bonum - good -- STEM = bon- clarus, clara, clarum - famous, clear -- STEM = clar- pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum - beautiful -- STEM = pulchr- acer, acris, acre (three nominative endings)- sharp -- STEM = acr- utilis, utile (two nominative endings) - useful -- STEM = util- audax, audacis (one nominative ending, genitive singular)- bold -- STEM = audac-
Golden Rules for Adjectives
Adjectives agree with the nouns they modify in gender, number, and case (GNC).
An adjective can agree with its noun and not have the same ending. agricola bonus (both are masculine, nominative singular) nautam clarum (both are masculine, accusative singular)
Substantives
Remember the movie The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly? Just like English, a Latin adjective can "stand for" a noun. boni (nominative pl.) -- the "good," meaning the "good people" mali -- the "bad," meaning the "bad people" turpes -- the "ugly," meaning the "ugly people"
Case Endings

First Declension
M. & F.
Second Declension
M.
Second Declension
N
Case Uses

sing. pl. sing. pl sing. pl. Nominative
-A
-AE
-US, -ER, -IR
-I
-UM
-A
Subject, Predicate Nominative, Predicate Adjective
Genitive
-AE
-ARUM
-I
-ORUM
-I
-ORUM
Possessive, of..., 's
Dative
-AE
-IS
-O
-IS
-O
-IS
Indirect object (to whom, for whom)
Accusative
-AM
-AS
-UM
-OS
-UM
-A
Direct object, Object of certain prepositions
Ablative
-A
-IS
-O
-IS
-O
-IS
By means, Object of certain prepositions

Third Declension Endings

Case
Masculine and Feminine
Neuter

sing. pl. sing. pl. Nominative
--- (varied)
-ES
--- (varied)
-A (-IA)
Genitive
-IS
-UM
-IS
-UM (-IUM)
Dative
-I
-IBUS
-I
-IBUS
Accusative
-EM
-ES
--- (varied)
-A (-IA)
Ablative
-E
-IBUS
-E (-I)
-IBUS

Fourth Declension Endings

Case
Masculine…