Early Dynastic- Egypt is first unified (upper/lower egypt)
Unification of Egypt is represented in the: Palette of King Narmer, ca. 3000 BC
Makeup palette used for eye liner (coal: sticky consistency).
Goddess Hathor- Mother Goddess (two large heads on the top of the palette)
False door- ability for spirits to enter
Narmer has no shoes- may represent his passing and going into the spiritual world. Narmer’s crown (headdress) represents Upper Egypt.
message of the whole palette- “I am Narmer, I am strong with a lot of power... don’t mess”
Narmer-Twisted Perspective Sandal bearer is there again.
Lotus- upper egypt symbol Headdress is from Lower Egypt REPRESENTS THE UNIFICATION ( lotus and headdress together )
Horus- FALCON- protector of Upper Egypt
Smited enemies in the bottom register.
Old Kingdom was the first to have Megalithic architecture.
Imhotep (architect)- Funerary complex of King Zoser (Djoser), Saqqara ca 2500 BCE (Step Pyramid) Imhotep- worshiped like a god.
13 false doors and 1 actual door.
5 Mastabas on top of each other
Old Kingdom-Pyramids at Giza dates vary; the three main people buried Kahfre, Kufu, Menakaure.
Great Pyramid of Kahfre, Giza, ca. 2551-28 BCE (Largest/Oldest tomb)
Pyramid of Kufu, Limestone cap,
Sphinx- Lion’s body with a head of a pharaoh. Lines up with Kufu’s pyramid, but the stones match with Kahfre’s material (stone). Egyptians believed that the lion never slept, so it becomes the perfect protector of the ENTIRE necropolis of Giza.
Menakaure- Smallest pyramid
All pyramids are set on a specific axis. They placed Manakaure’s pyramid off axis to have a less dwarfing effect on the pyramid, when viewed the size of the pyramid doesn’t look small. The Pyramids represent the Sun God,
Menkaure and his Queen, ca. 2490-72 BCE The woman is more naturalistic than the men.
Architecture that is more secure than before. Burial forms are now built into natural forms of protection, The Mortuary Temple of Queen Hatshepsut is built next to a cliff.
Senmut (Architect)- Mortuary Temple of Queen Hatshepsut, Deir-el-Bahri Egypt 1473-58 BCE.
New Kingdom Structures are not as massive as Old Kingdom.
Thutmose I Hatshepsut’s father--> Hatshepsut’s husband Thutmose II → Hatshepsut before Thutmose III