The Renaissance began in the fourteenth century in Italy where the culture was surrounded by the remnants of their empire. Italians rediscovered the writings, philosophy, art, and architecture of the ancient Greeks and Romans and soon enough the people encouraged humanistic education, which was based on rhetoric, ethics and the liberal arts. This was pushed as a way to create well-rounded citizens who could actively participate in the political process. These new cultural movements really inspired the artists, while Italy’s trade with Europe and Asia resulted in wealth that was later created for the purpose of art. Earlier, before the Renaissance Period, art was mainly authorized by the Catholic Church, which gave artists specific and strict directions about what the finished product was to look like. However, during this period, Artists were allowed greater flexibility and adjustability in what they were allowed to produce, and they took advantage of it by exploring new themes and techniques.
The Protestant Reformation was a “Christian reform movement in which members looked to reform practices of the Catholic Church, particularly involving the teaching and sale of indulgences”. In 1517 Martin Luther wrote a scholastic objection protesting against the Catholic Church practice of indulgencies which came to be known as the 95 Theses. In the 95 Theses Luther denied that the pope had the right to forgive sins. The Protestant Reformation brought about two different types of Christian - the Catholic Church, which was already established, and also the Protestant churches. This changed the religious beliefs, practices, culture and society of Christians in Europe. In addition, this movement “divided Christians and reshaped political and religious values, challenged the authority of the Catholic Popes over regional rulers, Kings gained absolute control over their kingdoms, and also led to modern concepts of Democracy” (Wineburg 350).
Sebastian Cabot (1474-1557) was a “well-educated explorer, mapmaker and navigator of Italian descent. He worked as a mapmaker for England’s King Henry VIII, and was a captain for Spain’s King Ferdinand V” (Steve 2). Cabot made a voyage for England in 1508-1509, where he sailed far northward and discovered the entrance to Hudson Bay. In 1526, he sailed from Spain with four ships. He explored the eastern coast of South America in search for gold, but found none. However, one of