Organizations- Groups of people who work interdependently
Organizational effectiveness- “ultinmate dependent variable”- The outcome that theories of OB are trying to achieve.
THE FOUR PERSPECTIVES
Open Systems Perspective- views organizations as organisms that “live” within an excternal environment. A perspective which holds that organizations depend on the external environment for resources, affect that environment through their output, and consist of internal subsystems that transform inputs into outputs Organizational Effeciency- the amount of outputs relative to unputs in the prganization’s transformation process
Organizational Learning Perspective- a perspective that holds that organizational effectiveness depends on the organization’s capacity to acquire, share, use, and store valuable knowledge. Intellectual capital- A company’s stock in knowledge, uncluding hunman capitol, and relationship capital. 1. Human capital- the stock of knowledge, skills, and abilities among employees that provide economic value to the organization. 2. Structural capital- knowledge embedded in an organization’s systems and structures. 3. Relationship capital- the value derived from an organization’s relationsships with customers, suppliers, and
Organizational learning processes 1. Knowledge acquisition 2. Knowledge sharing 3. Knowledge use 4. Knowledge storage.
Absorptive capacity- The ability to recognize the value of new information, Assimilate it, and use it for value-added activities.
Organizational memory- the storage and preservation of intellectual capital.
High performance work pratices perspective-A perspective which holds that effective organizations incorporate several worksplace practices that leverage the potential of human capital Stakeholder Perspctive- decisions are made by considering the stakeholders, anyone who affects, or is affected by the organizations. Panders to their needs and expectations. Values- relatively stable, evaluatie beliefs that fuide a person’s preferences for outcomes or courses of acions in a variety of situations Ethics- the study of moral principles or bvaklyes that determine whether ations are right or wrong and coutcomes are good or bad. Corpaorate Social Responsibilty- Organizational activities intended to benefit society and the environment beyond the firm’s immediate financial interests or legal obligations.
Contemporary Challenges for organizations Globalizations- the economic, social, and cultural connectivity with peoplen in other parts ofn the world. Information technology andtransportation a;;pw ,uch more intense level of cconnmectivty and interdependence around the planet. Surface-level diversity- the overvable demographic or physiological differences in people, such as their race, ethnicity, gender, age, and physical disabilities. Deep-level diversity- Differences in the phychological characteristics of employees, including personalities, beliefs, values, and attitudes. Consequences of diversity- a variety of knowledge, but can lead to communications problems
Work-Life Balance- The degree which a person minimizes conflict between work and nonwork demands.
Anchors of Organizational Behavior
Evidence-based management- The practice of making decisions and taking actions based on research evidence
Systematic research Anchor- OB should study organizations using sustematic research methods
Multidisciplinary anchor- OB should import knowledge from other disciplines, not just create its own knowledge
Contigency anchor- OB theory should recognize that the effects of actions often vary with the situation
Multiple levels of analysis anchor- OB events should be understood from three levels of analysis: individual, team, and organization
Creating an evidence-basedd management organization 1. Stop treating old ideas as if they