Essay on EXAM 3 Study Guide

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EXAM 3 Study Guide (Chapters 10 &11)
Process of how a particular society shapes its members with communal values and goals; acceptable behaviors.
Nature vs. Nurture How much of what we have is due to NATURE= BIOLOGY NURTURE=THE WAY YOU’RE RAISED
Jean Piaget: Cognitive Stages of Development*
1. Sensory motor= 0-2/ threw senses
2. Formal pre-opernational= 3-5/symbols (2 meanings to one sybol)
3. Concrete Operational=6-11/ cause and effect
4. Formal operations= 12+/ critical thinking
Sigmund Freud: Id, Ego, Superego*
1. ID= immediate satisfaction
2. EGO= helps deal with what you want and can’t have
3. SUPEREGO= conscience and guilt
Charles Horton Cooley: Looking Glass Self How we see ourselves he way we think others see us
1. Imagine others see us
2. Imagine their reaction
3. Feelings of pride or shame
George Mead: I and Me “I” is the content of an individual that is unique to them; respond how you want to
“Me” is how an individual feels larger society views them; respond how society wants you to

Agents of Socialization: Institutions that take part in the social interaction process: family, schools, peers, etc…
Family/school/ peers/ mass media/ workplace
Resocialization- Social reproductive theory The goal of total institutions to reshape how an individual participates and interacts with society
1. Relationship of authority and discipline in school
2. Specialization into certain subjects
3. Rewards

Total Institutions Places were individuals are cut off from larger society and lose their individual characteristics: prisons, boot camps, etc…
Deviance= varies from the norms

William Sheldon: body types
1. Ectomorph- tall and thin
2. Endomorph- plump
3. Mesomorph- muscular (most common to commit crime)

Cesare Lombroso: atavist FATHER OF CRIMINOLOGY
Flawed- studied prisoners- all damn look the same Thought could look at person to know they would be a criminal or not

Sykes and Matza: Techniques of Neutralization* when goodie and criminal flow into each other’s boundaries they use these to get around conscience
1. Denial of responsibility – out of your hands
2. Denial of injury – soda machines
3. Denial of victim – they’re aren’t victims im just better they would’ve beat me
4. Condeming th condemners- doctors who smoke fat personal traiener
5. Appeal to higher loyalty – just following orders

Robert Merton: Structural Strain Theory Occurs when there are contradictions, for example, between what people are taught to value and desire and how able they are to achieve those things. For example, if the athletic program at