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Lab Report i- Introduction

1. Learning Outcomes

The ability to work with a colleague to design and construct a working pipeline that satisfies the given criteria from basic pipe fittings and basic knowledge of pipe constructions.(lab handbook)

2. Theory

First, the diameter of the pipe was given in the lab laboratory handbook, however, the radius is required to calculate the cross-sectional area of the pipe so the following equation was used: (1)

Then, to calculate the cross-sectional area of the pipe the following equation was applied: (2)

The following equation is used to calculate the velocity of the fluid at certain flow rate so that it can be used to plot the derived data against pressure: (3)

Another equation is called the Bernoulli’s Equation, which is derived from the concept of conservation of energy, was helpful in this concept therefore it was used to justify the obtained results: (4)

In equation (4), the following assumptions were considered:

1- The fluid has constant density (which means the fluid is incompressibility),

2- The flow is steady,

3- There is no friction (which means the fluid viscosity is zero),

4- The temperature is constant.

However, due to insufficient data, equation (4) was not complete as the only data acquired was the pressure and the flow rate but not the elevation. However, these results were sufficient to derive some results which assisted in confirming the hypothesis about the relationship between pressure, velocity, and flow rate.

3. Relevance

The most common use is in the plumbing network supplying water at our home. This used to transport water into our home pipeline and to get rid of waste water after usage. However, it isn’t included in the industry sector. An example with significance in the industry is the Liquid transportation and distribution piping (Pipelines) System. Transportation is a vital part of the process, for example, if we need to different chemicals to react in a vessel and we know the stoichiometric ratio. In order to maintain this ratio we must control the flow and therefore the flow rate and pressure to control the amount of chemical entering the reaction vessel. This requires knowledge of pressure, velocity and flow rate.(pipe transport wiki)

Another example is the Slurry Transportation Piping Systems. Slurry is a suspension of solid particles in a liquid, as in a mixture of cement, clay, coal dust, manure, meat, etc. - with water. Since it contain solids in the mixture, it is important to avoid the solid particles to settle in the pipe to avoid obstruction of the flow. This should be done be keeping the velocity of the fluid above some certain levels to remove the settled particles. A pipeline transport system may under certain circumstances be nearly self-cleaning. When solids settle, the area of the pipe will decrease and the fluid speed increase until the state of equilibrium where the speed is so high that settling is avoided.

ii- Experimental Work

1. System Used

The system used was only water since we are only observing the flow of fluids in pipes and water is inert and safe to use for a basic and simple pipeline.

2. Equipment and Procedure

The first design was constructed with some flaws.

1) It was supposed to drain the whole system therefore two different drain pipes were placed both for draining tanks A and B so that if the pipes are compromised or contaminated, use the drain to remove the polluted