2. Culture (1) is the sum of the "value, rituals, symbols, beliefs, and through processes that are learned and shared by a group of people ,then transmitted from generation to generation." (2) Is the human made part of human environment-the sum total of knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, laws, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by humans as members of society.
3. Marketing research is traditionally defined as the systematic gathering ,recording ,and analyzing of data to provide information useful to marketing decision making.
4. Green marketing is term used to identify concern with the environmental consequence of a variety of marketing activities.
5. Distribution process includes the physical handling and distribution of goods ,the passage of ownership(title),and the buying and selling negotiation between producers and middlemen and between middlemen and customers.
6. Planning process is a systematized way of relating to the future. It is an attempt to manage the effects of external ,uncontrollable factors on the firm's strengths ,weaknesses , objectives ,and goals ,toattain a desired end.
7. International marketing is the performance of business activities designed to plan, price, promote, and direct the flow of a company’s goods and services to consumers or users in more than one nation for a profit.
1、What are the four distinguished features of Japanese distribution ? (1) a structure dominated by many small middlemen dealing with many small retailers (2) channel control by manufactures (3) a business philosophy shaped a union culture (4) laws that protect the foundation of the system—the small retailer.
2、What are the five characteristics of a product innovation? (1) relative advantage (the perceived marginal value of the new product relative to the old ) (2) compatibility (its compatibility with acceptable behavior ,norms ,values) (3) Complexity (the degree of complexity associated with product use) (4) Trialability (the degree of economic and/or social risk associated with product use) (5) Observability (the ease with which the product benefits can be communicated )
3、Discuss the stages of the research process
9、What are the six steps for marketing research process (1) Defining the research problem and establish research objectives (2) Determine the source of information to fulfill the research objectives (3) Consider the costs and benefits of the research effort (4) Gather the relevant data from secondary or primary sources, or both (5) Analyse,interpret and summarize the results (6) Effectively communicate the result to decision makers
4、What's the guiding steps of a company in international advertising ? (1) Perform marketing research (2) Specify the goals of the communication (3) Develop the most effective message(s) for the market segments selected (4) Select effective media (5) Compose and secure a budget (6) Execute the campaign, and (7) Evaluate the campaign relative to the goals specified
5、What is the task of the international market researcher?
How is it complicated by the foreign environment ?
Task: a marketer must find the most accurate and reliable data possible within the limits imposedby time, cost, and present state of the art to marketing decision making.
(1) Information must be communicated across cultural boundaries. (2) The environments in which research tools are applied are often different in foreign markets. Within a foreign environment, the frequently differing emphases on the kinds of information needed, the often limited variety of appropriate tools and techniques available, and the difficulty of implementing the research process constitute the challenges facing most