Hcg Test

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1. What is metastasis?
Metastasis is the process in which malignant tumours spreads from the original site of neoplasm to other parts of the body. It spreads once a clump of cells from the primary site of cancer breaks off and enters the blood, lymphatic system, coelomic spaces or by local invasion and invades other organs and tissues. The new tumour that forms in a new location is known as a metastatic tumour causing secondary cancer. However even though most neoplasms can metastasise, this process is difficult as cancer cells have to go through a series of steps to colonize a different location.

2.How do cancer cells vary from their normal precursors? What are the potential characteristics of cancer cells?
Cancer cells vary a lot from normal
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Explain the significance of the hCG test and its result.
A hCG test is originally used to detect if a patient is pregnant as there will be high levels of the hormone human chorionic gonadotropin in the uterus. However in Demeter's case she is not pregnant, so since it was measured she had '10,000 IU/L' levels of hCG in her uterus, which corresponds to a patient that is 6 weeks pregnant, this suggests something is clinically wrong. Abnormal results like this when the levels of hCG is higher than normal can indicate she has choriocarcinoma or hydatidiform mole of the uterus. Since the levels of hCG still remained high after the removal of the molar pregnancy this meant the abnormal tissue carried on growing and became cancerous- choriocarcinoma. This then spread by haematogenous to other parts off the
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From this a doctor can predict the treatment and prognosis. Grading generally works by the higher the grade the tumour is given, the more likely the tumour is differentiating and metastasising. Tumours at a low grade have similar characteristics to original cell type of origin. In the MRI scan it was observed there was tumours found in her lungs, liver and brain which suggests Demeter's is at a high grade as it has metastasised to other parts of the body. It is important to see where the tumours originated from by looking at the tumours found in the lungs, liver and brain as its cells will be very similar to those in original tumour. They will have similar characteristics so you are able to identify where the original source of the cancer cells is in the body. In Demeter's case if a biopsy was taken of her tumours in her lungs, liver and brain they would show this, as well as the type of tumour it they can see the effects it will have. Most malignant cells have a relationship to normal tissue so can have similar morphology and expression of the cell-specific genes, this means they are able to determine where they arose