1. Who was Ptolemy: Why do you think his geocentric model of the universe found support with the Church? His idea found support because the Church’s belief was that God created Earth to be a special place, where there was life and nature. Therefore, surely Earth would be the center of the universe.
2. How did Copernicus challenge the geocentric model of the universe? Copernicus realized that the movements of the planets, sun and moon did not agree with the geocentric theory. He concluded that the stars, planets and the Earth revolved around the sun in his heliocentric theory.
3. How did Galileo confirm the ideas of Copernicus, Kepler and Brahe? Galileo discovered that Jupiter had four moons. His discovery confirmed that some objects do not revolve around Earth, supporting the heliocentric theory.
4. How did the microscope and the work of Harvey change the accepted view of anatomy and medicine? The invention of microscope led to the discoveries of micro-organisms such as bacteria. William Harvey’s contribution regarding the heart was significant. Previous beliefs were that blood was converted food made in the liver, which was absorbed by parts of the body. However, Harvey calculated that the human heart pumps 600 pounds of blood per day, leading him to believe that blood circulated the system.
5. Explain the main ideas of Bacon. Bacon criticized medieval scholars for relying heavily on ideas of ancient philosophers. He favored experiments for drawing conclusions. This is called empiricism, the experimental method or inductive reasoning.
6. Explain the main ideas of Descartes Descartes, as a mathematician, only relied on mathematics and logic. He believed that nothing can be trusted until proven by logic. Descartes was a deductive thinker.
7. Explain the main ideas of Newton Newton believed that the universe could be explained using mathematics. In order to do this, he invented some of the necessary mathematics himself. He is famous for discovering the universal law of gravitation and his three laws of motion.
8. Robert Boyle Boyle is one of the founders of chemistry. He is known for his Boyle’s law which explains the relationship between pressure and volume of a gas.
9. Andreas Vesalius
Vesalius is the founder of modern human anatomy. In 1543, he published a seven volume work on human anatomy.
10. Otto Brunfels He was one of the first chemical biologists. His idea that diseases are based on chemical reactions made it possible to apply the knowledge of chemistry into biology.
1. Who were the philosophes? What do you see as the relation between the scientific revolution and philosophy of the eighteenth century? Philosophes were intellectuals who believed that there are reasons for all aspects of life. After the scientific revolution, scientists used reason and logic to explain nature; both philosophes and scientists sought reason.
2. Define natural law. Explain the relation between natural rights. The natural law was Hobbes philosophy that citizens had to give up their rights and agree with the ruling of the government, as a part of the social contract. Locke’s idea of natural rights was a contrasting view. The purpose of the government was to protect these rights, and a failure to do so would give the citizens the right to overthrow the government.
3. Define deism. Deism is a religious belief that God was involved only in the creation of the universe.
4. The Church believes people are born in sin (original sin). a) How does the Church belief agree with social and political ideas of feudalism; b) how do the ideas of John Locke disagree; c) How do Locke’s agree or disagree with