CHAPTER 14 Leadership: is the ability to influence a group towards the achievement of goals. MANAGEMENT is the use of authority inherent in designated formal rank to obtain compliance from organizational members. HISTORY OF LEADERSHIP: Traditional - Trait – Behavioral – Contingency (Followers, Positive, Dark Side)[Parenthesis is Contemporary]. TRAIT THEORIES are theories that consider personality, social, physical, or intellectual traits to differentiate leaders from non-leaders. BEHAVIORAL THEORIES are theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate effective leaders from ineffective ones. OSS (Consideration (creating mutual respect or trust and focuses on a concern for group members’ needs and desires) and Initiating Structure (organizes and defines what group members should be doing to maximize output)) vs. U of M (Behavioral differences between effective and ineffective leaders)[Consider action and Initiating Structure, vs. Relationship Oriented and Production Oriented]. CONTINGENCY THEORIES states that there is no best way to organize a corporation, to lead a company, or to make decisions. Best course of action is dependent on the internal and external situation. FOLLOWER THEORIES – this has to do with the In-group (PARTNERSHIP; if the workers like the leader they consider him part of the “group”) and the Out-group (NO MUTUAL TRUST; leader doesn’t get along well and is considered external to the “team/group”). TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP leaders are those who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by the clarifying role task requirements. It focuses on interpersonal interactions between managers and employees; we have Contingent Reward, Management by Exception (Active), Management by Exception (Passive) – “I don’t do anything until you do something wrong”, and Laissez-Faire – “Avoidance of leadership”. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP leaders are leader who motivate employees to transcend self-interests to pursue organizational goals and to perform beyond expectations. It transforms employees to pursue organizational goals over self-interests; we have Inspirational Motivation (inspire and motivate through emotional and support appeals; Strong vision based on values/ideals), Idealized Influence (Gains respect and trust through charisma; high standards of moral and ethical conduct), Intellectual Stimulation (Awareness of problems & solutions; stirs imagination; encourages divergent thinking), and Individualized Consideration (gives personal attention; treats each employee individually; coaches, advises). It is positively related to Important Outcomes: performance, effectiveness, job satisfaction, leader satisfaction, organizational commitment, and follower motivation. LEADER TRAIT is a physical or personality characteristic that can be used to differentiate leaders from followers. Effective leaders have: Intelligence, dominance, self-confidence, level of energy and activity, and task-relevant knowledge. Bad leaders have: incompetent, rigid, intemperate, callous, corrupt, insular, and evil. IMPLICIT LEADERSHIP THEORY is the idea that people have beliefs about how leaders should behave and what they should do for their followers. LEADERSHIP PROTOTYPE is a mental representation of the traits and behaviors that people believe are possessed by leaders. SITUATIONAL THEORIES propose that the effectiveness of a particular style of leader behavior depends on the situation. APPLYING SITUATIONAL THEORIES, (1) Identify important outcomes, (2) identify relevant leadership types/behaviors, (3) Identify situational conditions, (4) Match Leadership to the conditions at hand, (5) Determine how to make the match. SHARED LEADERSHIP entails a simultaneous mutual influence process in which individuals share responsibility regardless of formal roles. SERVANT LEADERSHIP focuses on increased service to others rather than to oneself. Fielder effectiveness depends on the appropriate match between leadership…
Personal Goals and Motivation Analysis Essay
I have a few goals in life, I used to have more but most of them have already been accomplished or achieved. My goals in life first off, are to be the best I can possibly be. I want to write a book and I believe that I can do just that by taking my skills that I have learned all throughout school, and my endless knowledge of folklore and Magick of Olde to accomplish my goal of becoming a successful writer. My other goals include, but are not…
Essentials of contemporary Management
CHAPTER 1 NOTES
Organizations Collections of people who work together and coordinate their actions to achieve goals and desired future outcomes.
Provide jobs and employment
Most people in Canada employed in small or medium sized organizations
Social Economy A bridging concept for organizations that have social objectives central to their mission and their practice, and either have explicit economic objectives or generate some economic value through…
A report on how behavior can effect an organization
1. Organizational structures
1.1 The definition of Organizational structures
Organization structures means the framework around which the group is organized, which would help the leader how to gather the organization and manage the organization.
1.2 Type of structures
Flat organization structure has fewer management levels, which has one level of hierarchical to consists of each department. It is appropriate for smaller companies in which…
A month ago I would have never expected to be enrolled in college and working towards a career that I had only dreamed of having. I have always wanted to go back to school and earn a degree to better my future, but did not have the means or the motivation to do so. I decided that I needed to do something more with my life and went on to request information about pursuing a career in nursing, and a week later I was on my way to enrollment at South University.
My career goal is to become…
is to set your own goals. There are different types of goals and each has to be achieved in various ways. Setting goals is used by swimmers, business people, artists and almost everyone who wants to achieve something in life. Setting a goal gives someone motivation to complete it and it can help them to keep track of time organisation and to give them a vision of approximately how long it will take to achieve this goal and how much work will need to be done. To achieve a goal many factors must be…
The invisible force that drives the mind to focus on reaching objectives, and allows an individual to work at their maximum capability is achieved through the process of motivation. Motivation is a psychological process through which unsatisfied wants or needs lead to drives that are aimed at goals or incentives (Luthans & Doh, 2012). The aim of this assignment is to compare the similarities and differences between two popular motivational theories and provide a personal opinion on…
Early ideas--- Taylor & Mayo
Taylor’s scientific management theory can be seen as fundamental to HR management. Scientific management is a systematic method of determining the best way to do a job and specifying the skills needed to perform it, hence to achieve efficiency, standardization, discipline.
There are five principles of Taylor’s scientific management---
1. It has a clear division of tasks and responsibilities between management and workers;
2. Use of scientific…
IMPACT OF ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND CULTURE ON JOB SATISFACTION, JOB STRESS AND EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION: A SURVEY OF EXISTING LITREATURE
Effectively managing human resources in the organizations is a big concern both for HR managers and the policy makers of the organization. To have a satisfied, motivated, less stressed performing workforce an organization must have consistency amongst its structure, system, people, culture and good fit with the strategy. In this paper an attempt has been…
Compare and contrast expectancy and goal setting theories of work motivation. Which do you find the more useful and why?
Two of the best known approaches to work motivation are the expectancy theory introduced by Victor Vroom (1964) and the goal-setting theory introduced by Edwin A. Locke (1968). Both of these theories have garnered support from subsequent empirical research and have proved influential in how companies motivate their workers through incentive schemes and objective-setting exercises…
JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT, BUSINESS, AND ADMINISTRATION VOLUME 15, NUMBER 1, 2011
Goal-Setting Theory of Motivation
Fred C. Lunenburg
Sam Houston State University
ABSTRACT Locke and Latham provide a well-developed goal-setting theory of motivation. The theory emphasizes the important relationship between goals and performance. Research supports predictions that the most effective performance seems to result when goals are specific and challenging, when they are used to evaluate performance and linked…