Learning outcomes Essay examples

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CHAPTER 9
Define Congress: The national legislative body of a country; designed to be the people’s most direct voice; it is a bicameral legislature (House and Senate)

Explain four major differences between the House of Representatives and Senate: 1) The members of the house are elected from districts and the members of the senate are elected from states 2) There are 435 members of the house and 100 members of the senate 3) Members of the house serve a 2 yr term and senators serve a 6 yr term 4) The requirements are different for holding the office

Describe the three legal requirements for the two houses: HOUSE OF REP- US Citizen, Resident of US for 7 years, Must be at least 25 SENATE- US Citizen, Resident of US for 9 years, Must be at least 30

Explain the major differences in the law making process between the two houses: In the house it goes to the rules committee which in the senate it does not

Discuss the two major challenges for state legislatures when reconfiguring congressional districts: Minority representation, gerrymandering to give an unfair advantage to one group

Explain the three major roles of congress: 1) Law Making: 2) Oversight: 3) Constituency Service:

CHAPTER 10
Define the presidency: The highest office in the executive branch

Explain the three legal requirements for the office: Age – 35 yrs. Residency – 14 yrs. Citizenship - Natural born

Describe the Constitutional and additional roles of the presidency: Constitutional- 1) Act as commander and chief 2) Negotiate treaties 3) Receive foreign ambassadors 4) Nominate top federal officials including federal judges 5)Veto bills 6) Faithfully administer federal laws 7) Pardon persons convicted of federal offenses 8) Address congress and the nation Additional roles- 1) Crisis manager 2) World leader 3) Legislative leader 4) Party leader 5) Morale builder 6) Personnel recruiter 7) Political initiator 8) Conflict resolver 9) Coalition builder 10) Bargainer and persuader

Describe offices, departments and agencies established to assist the president in fulfilling his roles: Main 4; Department of State (DOS)- first department ever made JOHN KERRY Department of Defense (DOD)- has the largest personnel CHUCK HAGEL Department of Justice (DOJ)- only one that doesn’t have a secretary ERIC H HOLDER Department of Homeland Security (DHS)- newest one/ last one created JEH JOHNSON

Discuss the two models of information flow into and out of the White House: Hub-in-the-wheel= President at the center Advantage—access to a tremendous amt. of info. Disadvantage—info. overload Pyramid= Information filters upwards to the president Advantage—the president is not overwhelmed Disadvantage—vital information may never reach the president

CHAPTER 11
Describe the four types of federal bureaucratic agencies and list two examples of each:
Executive Cabinet Departments(14)- DOS, DOD, DOJ, DHS
Independent Regulatory Agencies- FDA
Independent Commissions & Boards- FCC, FRB
Government Corporations- AMTRAK, TVA

Discuss three reasons for the growth of the bureaucracy:
Complexity of society
Industrial Revolution – technology
WWI & WWII – military
New Deal & Great Society programs – social
Laws…