Sharecropping: Sharecropping developed because the former slaves and planters needed each other. The principal crop continued to be cotton. And the planters under the sharecropping system continued to a large degree to control the lives of the blacks working their land. While the system at first developed to obtain black labor, eventually poor whites also entered the sharecropping system.
Tenant Farming: Instead of working in gangs as they had on antebellum plantations, the freedmen became tenants. The planter or landowner assigned each family a small tract of land to farm and provided food, shelter, clothing, and the necessary seeds and farm equipment. When the crop was harvested, the planter or landowner took the cotton to market and after deducting for the "furnish" (the cost of the items the tenant had been furnished during the year), gave half of the proceeds to the tenant.
Debt Peonage: Newly passed laws in the South called "The Black Code" prohibited the slaves from leaving the land without first gaining a "pass" from the landowner. Instead, the former slaves were forced to work the land to pay for room and board. Given that a landowner had no incentive to offer any former slave a pass to leave, these men and women were forced back into the life they were legally free from. Once slaves under the law, they became slaves again under debt peonage.
For the most part, progressive whites in the early 20th century accepted the idea of racial segregation.
During this period, the vast majority of African Americans lived in the South. This did not change until World War I broke out. For this reason, African Americans were not particularly important to the progressives. The Progressive movement was mainly concentrated in the North. This meant that they were not particularly concerned with African American issues. Therefore, there was little or no interest in the plight of African Americans. The Progressives were much more interested in issues that had more of an impact on middle class whites.
It seems we as blacks did a bit better as far as education, and family values go when we were segregated. While that may be true, I think that the Crack epidemic and the growth of gang affiliation is what caused the down fall of many black people.
The Talented Tenth is a term that designated a leadership class of African Americans in the early twentieth century. The term was publicized by W. E. B. Du Bois in an influential essay of the same name, which he published in September 1903. It appeared in The Negro Problem, a collection of essays written by leading African Americans.
She worked with the NAACP to ensure that African American women got the same rights as everyone.
He urged African-Americans to fight back agaisnt segregation, he disagreed with Booker T. Washington who wanted African-Americans to learn a trade(Washington felt the only way to be equal was to have money and a decent job). W.E.B. Du Bois felt they had to fight for equal rights.
Jane Addams established the Hull House, which opened its doors to European immigrants. To find out more information on the Hull House check out the related link.
Riis was one of the muckrakers, the people who exposed poor conditions in various aspects of American life. In Riis's case, he made the public and powerful people more aware of the harsh conditions in which poor people in the cities lived. The attention that this brought helped to cause the Progressives to reform the way things were done in American cities. The Progressives pushed for better, more honest city governments and better laws to ensure that housing was safe, clean, etc.
The Chinese exclusion act was a way for the Chinese people to express their right to be noticed. This was issued in 1872 when ruler Buhrmann was forming a democracy for the biggest food petition in the world at that time to feed the needy and hungry people of Austria, which was in a recession started by