According to J.M Thompson (1969), Napoleon never believed in parliamentary government. He believed that a state should be governed like an army by a strong centralized government. Three consuls were established and according to Stuart Miller (1997), ‘Napoleon manipulated his way towards sole, unlimited executive power’ (pg20.) He was able to gain the title of first consul, introduce legislation and decide foreign policy. So, there was no compromise and Napoleon had the last word. According to Stuart Miller (1997), The Constitution of year VIII verified the rights of property and individual liberty. Citizens were now free to purchase land. Napoleon suppressed independent political activity and no organized opposition was allowed. According to J.M Thompson, literary men, editors and theatrical managers were subject to a continual and harassing censorship. In this way, freedom of expression was forbidden. Censoring the daily press however was not enough for Napoleon. He was afraid that any publication might endanger his regime. As a result, he relied on the Minister of Police and his ‘Librarian’ to read and analyze all the books, papers, plays, lectures and posters that appeared in Paris and to send in weekly or daily reports. An intentional attempt was made to ensure that the right messages about the government and Napoleon got full publicity in all media.
Napoleon established several financial reforms as well. In terms of equality, he introduced a fair system of taxation through centralization of the administrative department. There were no longer any tax exemptions for the wealthy. He got rid of some of the taxes that the peasants were previously forced to pay. He reconfirmed the abolition of the notion of meritocracy. Estates, privileges and local liberties no longer existed. In terms of liberty, Stuart Miller states that Napoleon’s ideas on economies were old fashioned. In the later war years, Napoleon turned mostly to market restrictions. The continental system was expanded. This was a self blockade of British goods. As a result of this, French traders were unable to choose who they wanted to trade with. Miller goes on to state that ,“The dominance and protection of French planters meant that it was very much a ‘one-way common market’ which would never produce an integrated European economy”(pg25.) So, in a sense,