Melody is defined by its range, contour, and movement.
The range of a melody is categorized by the distance between the lowest and highest notes.
3 types of melodic ranges: Narrow, Medium, and Wide.
The contour of a melody is the overall shape as it ascends, descends, or remains static.
The most common types of melodic contour are: ascending, descending, wave-like, and arching
An interval is the distance between any two pitches. m2 (minor 2nd) – “Jaws Theme”
M2 (Major 2nd) – “Happy Birthday”
P4 (Perfect 4th) – “The Wedding March”
TT (Tri-tone) – “The Simpsons Theme”
P5 (Perfect 5th ) – “Twinkle Twinkle Little Star”
M6 (Major 6th ) – “NBC Theme”
P8 (Perfect Octave) – “Somewhere Over The Rainbow.
Melodies that have small and connected intervallic motion from note to note are known as conjunct melodies.
A phrase is a grouping of notes that come together to make a musical statement. A cadence occurs when a phrase comes to a resting point and the cadence acts like a comma or a period within a sentence (also where a singer or instrumentalist will take a breath).
Rhythm is the movement of music in time.
A beat is the basic unit of rhythm.
When a beat gets a specific emphasis we call that beat an accented beat.
Duple meter (2/4) two beats to each measure and alternates a strong downbeat.
Triple meter (3/4) three beats to each measure – one strong beat and two weak beats.
The Chromatic Scale is built when all 12 tones are present. (ex: A, A#, B, C, C#, D, D#, E, F, F#, G, G#).
There are 3 main textures we will be listening for this semester: Monophonic, Polyphonic, Homophonic.
Monophonic (or “single voice”) is a melody that is unaccompanied and is completely solo.
A polyphonic (or “many voiced”) texture happens when two or more different melodic lines are combined.
A homophonic texture is when a single melody takes over as the main melodic interest while there is some form of accompaniment in which the melody is based upon.
Form as it pertains to music is the structure in which a composition is arranged.
The main elements of a compositions form are repetition, contrast, and variation.
Repetition is the element that keeps a melody fresh in the ears of the listener. Contrast is the element that feeds the listeners desire for something different.
Strophic Form – a form in which the same melody is repeated with each stanza of the text.
Variation is where some aspects of the music are altered but the original is still recognizable.
Improvisation – music is created spontaneously, but repetition, contrast, and variation are a big part of the improvisers narrative.
Two part form also known as binary form is a composition that is based on an A section (statement) and a contrasting B section (departure) – and nothing else.
Three part or ternary form is a composition that is based on an A section (statement) a contrasting B section (departure) and a repeat of the A section again.
A very common form in popular music is ternary or compound ternary (AABA). Whenever there are only two sections of a song that alternate (verses,…