Biochemistry is the study of chemical substances and the vital processes occurring in a living organism.
Fig 15-1 pg. 570 * Cellular metabolism * Life’s “wiring” diagram * ~200 small biomolecules in a cell * Biomolecule: an organic compound normally present as an essential component of living organisms. * Fig 15-1 looks complex because all of the pathways are interconnected.
Types of Biomolecules 1. Lipids * Act as hormones/signalling (testosterone) * Store energy (fats/fatty acids) * Barriers (membranes) * Insulation (blubber) 2. Proteins * Movement (actin/myosin) * Catalysis & enzymes (alcohol dehydrogenase) * Structural (keratin) * Transport (hemoglobin) * Signalling/regulation (insulin) * Defence (antibodies) * Storage (ferritin) 3. Carbohydrates * Energy (glucose) * Structural (cellulose) * Signalling/cell recognition (glycosylation) * Components of DNA & RNA 4. Nucleic acids * Information storage (DNA/RNA) * Energy transfer (ATP) * Catalysis (ribozymes) * Components of cofactors such as NAD+ or FAD A. Atoms and Bonding * Most biomolecules are made up of the following elements: hydrogen, oxygen,, nitrogen, carbon and phosphorous. * We are interested in how these molecules interact with each other and themselves. * Different interactions are known as bonding. * 5 major types: 1. Covalent bonding : sharing of electrons (e-) between 3 adjacent atoms * Figure 1-13 * Covalent bonds are