April 11, 2013
Jon Cabiria Ph. D
Organizational Psychology is becoming crucial to modern companies that are realizing the impact of knowing what makes employees happy at work. They are concerned with productivity and revenue. Companies want to spend less time and money-training employees, which is why hiring the best candidate is beneficial to every business. The definition of Organizational Psychology will bring a better perspective as to why employers are implementing psychology in the workplace. The Evolution of the field of organizational psychology will also be discussed along with personal insight. By comparing Organizational psychology to other disciplines and analyzing the role that research and statistics play in organizational psychology in this paper will provide a better understanding of the benefits in organizational psychology.
What is Organizational Psychology?
According to Jex & Britt 2008 Organizational psychology is the scientific study of individual and group behavior in formal organizational settings. Every company utilizes organizational psychology to a certain extent. Some companies believe the well being of an employee will benefit the company by reducing turnover, promote a better work environment and invite employees to express new ideas. What a better way to do this than by incorporating theories learned that have worked in the past but also modify them to keep up with evolution. Incorporate technology and new ideas. Where I work the number one priority is to take care of each other to be able to take care of the customer. The best way to accomplish this is for everyone to be knowledgeable and continue with product knowledge on a daily basis. This includes training amongst each other by sharing best practices, training with online courses and in attending classroom training.
The evolution of the field of organizational psychology
Organizational psychology continues to evolve with time, it almost has to, to be able to adapt with the new generations and accommodate to the changing technology. Some of the major historical influences include Taylor, Hawthorn , Lewin and WWII. Frederick Winslow Taylor that developed the principles of scientific management (Taylor, 1911). One, those who perform work tasks should be separate from those who design work tasks, two workers are rational beings, and they will work harder if provided with favorable economic incentives and third, problems in the workplace can and should be subjected to empirical study. This is especially true when we relate those businesses that offer bonuses based on performance. Employees are motivated to perform and meet goals to reach promised bonuses. Jex & Britt 2008 go on to mention that Hawthorne studies was the beginning of organizational psychology from the 1920’s to the 1930’s the original purpose of the Hawthorne studies was to investigate the impact of environmental factors such as illumination, wage incentives, and rest pauses on employee productivity consulting. If you think about the results this brought to employees that now enjoy a work environment with air conditioner and heating and bathrooms, which are necessities. What about the employers that provide a gym, kitchen, and even daycare for employees? I am sure Hawthorne studies had a significant impact in this. Lewin’s ideas played a major role in the areas of dynamics, motivation, and leadership through the idea that researchers and organizations can collaborate on research and use the results to solve problems. When men were called to war in World War II, women were needed to fill many of the position in factories that were vacated by the men at war. Racial integration represented the initial attempts to understand work diversity. According to Rousseau, 2007 the term organization has two principal definitions. “The act or