Essay about Organizations: Organization and Human Relations Theory

Submitted By jodelong
Words: 774
Pages: 4

Industrial/Organizational Psychology
Organizations

Sky-high view of the workplace…
(Macro)

Market
Organization
Division
Work Group
Individual
(Micro)

What is an organization?
And why are we skipping ahead?

Organization
• Is a group of people who have common goals and who follow a set of operating procedures to develop products and services

Theories of organization
• Classic organization theory

• Discusses the formal structure of the organization rather than processes within the organization
• Bureaucracy was proposed as the ideal form of organization: included a formal hierarchy, division of labor, and a clear set of operating procedures

Classic organization theory
• Division of labor: dividing the performance of tasks into specialized jobs and departments
• Delegation of authority: lower-level employees report to higher-level employees
• Structure: the formal way an organization is designed; the number of levels or height of an organization • Span of control: the number of people who report to one person; the width of the organization

Assumptions of Classic OT
• Motivation consisted of getting the right organizational structure
• Personality, leader style, emotions, and similar concepts were unimportant
• There was “one best” way for all organizations to be
• The organization should control the individual

Human Relations Theory
• Human relations theory: considers the interrelationship between an organization’s requirements and the characteristics of its members
• Theory X: subordinates must be controlled to meet organizational ends
• Theory Y: subordinates would be motivated to meet goals in the absence of organizational controls

Theory X

Theory Y

Human Relations Theory
• Growth Perspective

• Individuals develop and can either be enhanced or stunted by organizations
• 1. From passive to active
• 2. From dependent to independent
• 3. From requiring immediate gratification to being capable of delaying gratification
• 4. From being able to deal with only concrete operations to being able to deal with abstractions
• 5. From having few abilities to having many abilities

Systems Theory
• Newest, shiniest view
• Broadened the view of organizations to say that factors outside the organization affected performance
• Organization is not isolated from the outside world
• Not interested in proposing a “best way” to operate any organization

Climate and Culture
• Climate

• What it is like to work here
• Specific ‘types’ of climates

• Culture

• Created and communicated from higher levels of organization; values of organization; historical

Climate measure example
• Employees are encouraged to develop their skills and abilities • This is not the type of organization that likes to take risks • I feel personally close to my co-workers
• If I make a strategic decision related to my work, I feel that my boss will back me up
• I feel that I have a good measure of control in my work • I am not given much responsibility in my work

What determines climate?
• Leader support and facilitation
• Role stress and lack of harmony
• Job challenge and autonomy
• Work-group cooperation and friendliness

Socialization
• Organizational socialization

• Process by which new employee becomes aware of values and organizational procedures • How does IU (and the
Psychological and Brain
Sciences Department) get students, faculty, and staff to become aware of the university’s values?

We’ve never lost a tailgate…

Schneider’s ASA model…