Philosophy Exam Review, Terms Essay

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Philosophy Exam Review
Definitions:
Philosophy- Thinking about thinking or the love of wisdom
Normative- In aesthetics, a term to refers to an approach to defining art. A normative definition involves defining art according to specific standards, or norms.
Values-
Induction (Inductive reasoning) – A reasoning process that involves drawing a general conclusion from specific observations.
Logical Consistency- In logic, refers to statements that do not contradict each other
Rehabilitations- Help integrate people (drunks, thief’s etc.)
Categorical Imperative- In ethics and social/political philosophy, a moral rule that is absolute. The term was developed by Immanuel Kant.
Philosophical Argument- A debate between 2 or more people, who present reasoned ideas for the purpose of discovering the truth.
Prescriptive- depending on or arising from effective legal prescription, as a right or title established by a long unchallenged tenure
Theoretical perspectives- a set of perspectives and assumptions about society and societal norms. These perspectives learn to gain information about the how's and why's of society
Logical contradiction- In logic, refers to statements that contradict each other or violte Aristotle’s law of non-contradiction.
Virtues- A character trait, such as courage, and wisdom, that is considered morally good.
Legal­- of or pertaining to the law; allowed by law
Collectivity- The quality or condition of being collective
Retrobutive Justice- A principle of justice based on retribution, or punishment. A RETROBUSIONIST say that law breakers should get a punishment they deserve or that the punishment should match the crime.
Morals- (Morality) customary beliefs about how people should be and act.
Deduction (Deductive Reasoning)- A reasoning process that involves drawing a specific conclusion from a general statement or premise.
Reformist- a person who advocates or practices reform; reform meaning the improvement or amendment of what is wrong, corrupt, unsatisfactory
Social/Political Philosophy- The area of philosophy that studies how society should be organized to meet people’s needs.
Argument-In logic a group of statements consisting of a premise, or premises, designed to justify a conclusion.
Democracy (Polity)- A form of government in which all citizens have some say in decision made by leaders.
Distributive Justice- Principle of justice that says that a society resources should be distributed equally among all people.
Ethics-The areas of philosophy that deals with the study of theories of morals and morality.
Isms
Ethical relativism- The belief that no moral code is absolute or universal. Relativists believe that moral values are relative to time, place, persons, and situations.
Existentialism- A philosophical movement that focuses on individual autonomy, and the necessity of making reasoned decisions for one’s self.
Utilitarianism- In ethics, and social/political philosophy, a theory, developed by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, that says that morally good choices are the ones that result in the greatest good for the greatest number of people.
Humanism- An ethical approach that emphasise the human or secular (non religious) realm over the religious or spiritual ground.
Communitarianism- An ideology that says that the rights of communities in societies are sometimes more important than individual rights (opposite of John Stuart Mills)
Ethical Universalism- The belief that one universally acceptable moral code determine the rightness, and wrongness of actions, though this code is not necessarily absolute. Exceptions may be made in certain circumstances.
Taoism- A philosophy, attributed to Laozi (Lao-Tzu), that emphasizes living in harmony with nature and the rhythms of the universe. “Go with the flow”
Atheism- A theory that rejects the idea of the existence of a supreme being.
Buddhism- A school of ethical, metaphysical, and epistemological thought that emphasizes…