Political Science Essays

Submitted By GarretVanDoren
Words: 1063
Pages: 5

State and Local Government Final Exam Review
Terms:
Pocket Veto – is when the governor essentially puts the bill in his pocket for an amount of time, each state specifies the amount of time it is allowed to be. It some cases it can automatically become a law
Sunset Laws – is when there is an expiration date on the agency. The agency will most likely be temporary and not permanent. After a certain amount of time like five years, the agency will expire, “go off into the sunset” unless renewed
Package Veto - means the entire bill was vetoed. A normal veto means one or more items aren't liked and if changed will be signed.
Patronage – is the support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another, “you scratch me back, and I’ll scratch yours”
Executive Order – A rule or order issued without getting approval of the legislature. This can happen in a time of emergency where it will only be temporary.
Impeachment – is a formal process in which an official is accused of unlawful activity, the outcome of which, depending on the country, may include the removal of that official from office as well as criminal or civil punishment.
Bureaucracy – administrative branch of executive branch that’s consists of executive officers and staff, also known as public administrators
Incrementalism – to have numbers from previous years, extrapolate, reducing and estimating budget for decrementalism
Capital Budget – apart from the regular budget, long term expenditures, major overhaul of highways such as new ramps or overpass, state and local municipalities, bulk of money comes from selling bonds
Adjudicate – to hear a case to decide on a verdict, taking actions to administer justice, apply and interpret the laws
Bench Trial – A bench trial is a trial in which there is no jury. Instead, the entire case is presented directly to the judge
Hyper Pluralism – is when a large number of interest groups (charity, non-profit, advocate, PCA, church groups) come together and every groups plays role in government. Come together and protect everyone in the community. Not going to work if one or two groups try to take over and take control. In a true coalition, there will be a group of leaders and not one main one
Urban Sprawl – major issue today because of strip malls and housing sub-divisions such as condos and apartment complexes. This is the spreading of cities into the outskirts. When this happens, it is expensive because there needs to be resources added such as water and roads
The Lakewood Plan – is when a municipality offers no services through the municipality. With that, there will be contactors and private vendors to do the work. Can only be done in small towns or communities. This can save a lot of money if towns or communities get together and share the resources to help each other out

Know the steps of how a bill becomes a law in the states:
1. Any Senator or General Assembly member may propose or sponsor a new law. Ideas for laws can come from many sources such as citizens, interest groups, public officials or the Governor.

2. At the legislator's direction, the idea is drafted as a bill. The legislator may ask other legislators to become co-sponsors

3. The bill is introduced when the Senate Secretary or General Assembly Clerk reads aloud the bill's number, sponsor and title during a legislative session.

4. The bill is usually sent to a committee which studies it and makes changes, if needed. These changes are called amendments. Committees have open meetings where the public may speak about the bill.

5. If the committee approves the bill, it is reported to the House and its title is read again. This is the bill's second reading.

6. When scheduled by the Senate President or Assembly Speaker, the bill's title is read for the third time, and it is debated and voted on. A bill passes if it receives a majority of votes (at least 21 in…