Waterborne illness is caused by pathogenic microorganisms which are directly transmitted when contaminated fresh water is consumed. Contaminated fresh water, used in the preparation of food, can be the source of foodborne disease through consumption of the same microorganisms. According to the World Health Organization, diarrheal disease accounts for an estimated 4.1% of the total DALY global burden of disease and is responsible for the deaths of 1.8 million people every year. It was estimated that 88% of that burden is attributable to unsafe water supply, sanitation and hygiene, and is mostly concentrated in children in developing countries.
Amebiasis typically occurs in areas where living conditions are crowded and where there is a lack of adequate sanitation. The illness is very prevalent in parts of the developing world, including Africa, Latin America, India, and Southeast Asia. It is rare in the United States, occurring mostly in immigrants, recent travelers to high-risk countries, and people with HIV/AIDS.
Single cell organisms that move in search of food by extending cytoplasm outward to form pseudopodia
They have thin cell membranes, a semi rigid layer of ectoplasm, a granular, jellylike endoplasm, and an oval-shaped nucleus.
A reaction to chemicals in their food (smaller organisms) causes the amoeba to form pairs of pseudopodia which wrap around the organism being eaten, and a cavity is formed.
There is no sexual reproduction occurs in amoeba.
They simply divide by mitotic cell division so the daughter amoebic cells are identical to the parental cell with identical genotypic and phenotypic properties.
People exposed to this parasite may experience mild or severe symptoms or no symptoms at all. Fortunately, most exposed people do not become seriously ill. The mild form of amebiasis includes nausea, loose stools, weight loss, abdominal tenderness and occasional fever. Rarely, the parasite will invade the body beyond the intestines and cause a more serious infection, such as a liver abscess.
Most infected people, perhaps 90%, are asymptomatic, but this disease has the potential to make the sufferer dangerously ill. It is estimated by the World Health Organization that about 70,000 people die due to amoebiasis annually worldwide.
Protista (kingdom) Rhizopoda (phylum) Lobosea (class) Gymnamoebae (family) Amoeba (genus)
Most individuals with amebiasis may be treated on an outpatient basis. Several clinical scenarios may favor inpatient care, as follows:
•Severe colitis and hypovolemia requiring intravenous volume replacement
•Liver abscess of uncertain etiology or not responding to empirical therapy
•Fulminant colitis requiring surgical evaluation
•Peritonitis and suspected amebic liver abscess rupture
Amebiasis affected life in the developing countries. Some people did not have money enough to treat this disease or they did not know this kind of disease. When they did not pay any attention of that, they just felt uncomfortable; maybe they would die for it. Their families might be sadness. That was unhappy.
If they knew this disease and they had money to treat it. But they would felt unhappy too. They might spend many time and money to face it. That might take away their time with their families. So amebiasis affected life in the region in which they afflict.
The CDC says in regard to cholera risk as of November 2010, "There has been an ongoing global pandemic in Asia, Africa, and Latin America for the last four decades." Outbreaks occur when there are disasters or other reasons for a loss of sanitary human waste disposal and the lack of safe fluids and foods for people to ingest. Haiti, a country that had not seen a cholera outbreak in over 50 years, had such circumstances develop in 2010 after a massive earthquake destroyed sanitary facilities and water and food treatment facilities for many Haitians.…