Martin Luther was born to Hans and Margaretha Luther on the 10th of November, 1483, in Eisleben, Germany. Martin started off life as a simple peasant in a miner’s family, but Hans Luther, Martin’s dad, knew that mining was a tough business and wanted a better future for his son. At age 7 Martin Luther entered a school in Mansfeld, and at age 14 he went to north Magdeburg, where he studied to become a lawyer. In 1501, Martin Luther entered the University of Erfurt, where he received a Master of Arts degree, and at that time, he seemed to be destined to actually become a lawyer. However, in July 1505, Luther had an extraordinary life-changing experience that set him on his course to become one of the most famous Christian reformers of all time. Although Martin Luther’s idea of becoming a monk was greatly opposed by his father, he felt that it was his destiny to be a person of God. The first few years Martin Luther spent in a monastery were difficult for him, and he didn’t necessarily experience the religious enlightenment he had hoped to find. At the age of 27, Martin Luther was offered an opportunity to be a delegate to a church conference in Rome, but left later because of the corruption and spiritual immorality he witnessed among the Catholic priests. He later enrolled in the University of Wittenburg to try and suppress his religious turmoil. Martin Luther eventually received a doctorate and became a professor at the university. Beginning in 1513, Martin began to teach the word of God, and one day, Martin read his lecture on the Epistle of Paul to the Romans, he read, “the just will live by faith”. He turned this statement over and over in his mind and finally came to the idea that the key to spiritual salvation was not to fear God or rigorously practice religious dogma, but to just have faith and faith alone will bring salvation. This realization changed Martin Luther’s life and set him on the course of the Protestant Reformation. On October 31, 1517, after being fed up with the corruption and immorality of the Catholic Church, Martin Luther nailed his 95 theses to the church door at Wittenburg, accusing the Catholic Church of heresy and religious immorality. These ninety-five theses contained strong critiques and opposition towards the selling of indulgences and how they were corrupting people’s faith.
Causes of Reformation
Church leaders were corrupt
Merchants resented church tax
Where did Reformation begin?
Came to the conclusion that faith alone was the key to salvation
Believed that all people of faith are equal
Personal interpretation of bible (no need for church)
“It began with attempts to reform the roman catholic church, and it ended shattering the religious unity of Europe”…
Background to the Reformation
-Nominalism: 14th Century; William of Oakham says faith and reason do not cooperate. Reason helps us understand the world and faith can help us understand God.
-Renaissance humanism: 14th-16th Century movement in Western Europe. “Rebirth” was the main idea. Arts, literature and theology made up the culture, which was going back to the classical roots. Humanism is the importance of the human being, this world, and the individual person.
-Ad fontes: to the fountain…
January 17, 2015
Renaissance, Reformation, Age of Exploration
The spirit of Renaissance encouraged the Protestant Reformation and Age of Exploration to take place. During the Renaissance, Reformation, and Age of Exploration, humanists flourished throughout Europe. Each is connected in a way. Each time had an immense impact on what and how we are today. Each was a movement that was about to change the world.
The Renaissance was a cultural movement that took place…
the Catholic Church authorities as a reward for a pious act. Martin Luther's protest against the sale of indulgences is often seen as touching off the Protestant Reformation.
Reformation-a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted the creation of Protestant churches
Lutheran-A member of a Protestant church founded on the teachings of Martin Luther.
Protestant-christians who belonged to non-catholic churches
participation. One of the major leaders of the Protestant reformation was John Calvin. He was born and educauted in France and believed that the Bible held supreme authority. Some must see places are the Eiffel tower, Notre Dane Cathedral and the Louve Museum.
Rome was one of the italisn city states and was also held an important role in the renaissance. The city was a center of learning and well as the arts. Rome had also held a part in the counter Reformation as well since Rome was controlled by the…
SCHISM, REFORM, & RENEWAL
Babylonian Captivity and Black Plague
Protestant Reformation (Renaissance)
Martin Luther, John Calvin, Ulrich Zwingli, King Henry VIII
Lutheranism, Calvinism, Anglicanism
St. Catherine of Sienna, Ignatius of Loyola, Teresa of Avila
Council of Trent
Babylonian Captivity of the Church
• “Babylonian Captivity”: Avignon Papacy- 1309-1377 (7 popes)
• Philip IV of France arrested Boniface VIII and put in French
Pope, Clement V.
"Martin, do you or do you not repudiate these books and the falsehoods they contain?" The question posed by the papal legate required an answer. The place was the Diet of Worms. The time was April 1521. The person standing before the papal legate and the assembled leaders of the Holy Roman Empire was a friar named Martin Luther. How would Luther answer the legate's question? Luther's answer was based upon his life-long focus upon one subject - the quest for personal salvation. As a devout Catholic…
that it would send people to heaven
4) Martin Luther stopped Tetzel from selling them
5) Indulgences were used as propaganda of Christianity
1) Led my Martin Luther
2) He criticized the Church
3) He said that the values they had in the Church didn’t match what the Bible said
4) Started by saying indulgences weren’t true
5) Leo X excommunicated Luther
1) The man who led the reformation
2) “Good works” weren’t needed for salvation…
Chapter 3: The Two Reformations
---The Northern Renaissance
Renaissance was only in Italy, N. Europe enjoyed very little economic or cultural vitality
1460- Humanism began to influence scholars in Northern Europe
Northern art and humanism
art emphasized decorative detail, and extreme realism, and no nudes
Albrecht Durer was drawn to Italy to learn how to depict human form. Went to Venice 2 times to study Italian painters(most famous northern renaissance painter)
Spread of cultural values…
University of Phoenix Material
Reformation Time Line and Journal Entries
Part 1: Time Line
Complete the time line identifying events in history during the Reformation.
Identify where the event occurred on the specified date
Describe the event and its significance for each date identified on the time line.
DATE: October 31, 1517
DESCRIPTION: The 95 Thesis was Martin Luther's response to the indulgences.
WHERE: The door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg