data need to b process(turn them into infos) to make them useful.
-refers to all types of data: primary and secondary data.
-range from: simple counts - more complex data.
-eg. graphs, charts, statistics.
Quality depends on: interaction between collection and analysis of data.
By: Interpret framework (Principal derived from word, not numbers)
Carefully explore them - since word can have multiple and unclear meanings.
-“Social Constructionism” meaning depend on ppl’s interpretation.
-Character: ambiguous, elastic, and complex.
-From: deductive or inductive approach/perspective.
Distinctions btw Qualitative and Quantitative data.
Numerical & Standardized.
Diagram & Statistic tables.
Contrast btw “thin” and “thick or through” abstraction(นามธรรม) description.
-“Thin” abstraction”: result from Quantitative data(##) collection.
-“Thick or Through abstraction”: associated with Qualitative data(@@).
The approach of analysis(Can begin with both Deductive and Inductive approach).
- Deductive approach: use existing theory to shape and adopt the Qualitative(@@) research.
-Inductive approach: seek to build up a theory from the data u collected.
Focus group/Focus group interview.
a grp interview which focus to a particular issue.
-“Moderator/Facilitator”person who run a focus grp.
-used by: Political practices(elections), and in Mkt research(product’s reactions).
-Compare wh “Grp interview”.
Interaction & Responses: encouraged and closely controlled.
Participants: have certain characteristics to the topic.
Discussion: conducted several times, with similar participants, to ensure trends and patterns of datas.
“Focus grp” is likely to b larger than “Grp interview”,
Collected Primary data using Interviews.
Purpose conversation btw u&respondents(2+), about ambiguous questions.
-“Research participants”(aka “Respondent”)
-Commonly conduct by face-to-face interview, but sometime it can be by others.
- Can be high formalized&structured, or even informal&unstructured.
1) Structured Interview.(std.ized/“Quantitative(##) interviews”).
-use questionnaires wh identical set of questions “Interviewee administered questionnaires”.
-collect Quantifiable data(##).
2) Semi- structured Interview. (non-std.ized/“Qualitative(@@) interviews”).
-researcher have all questions listed but omit some in some interview,
(question ordered vary upon conversation flow).
-Interview schedule: discussion will b Open&Close wh some comments, wh Quick promote to further discussion in btw.
3) Unstructured/In-dept Interview.(non-std.ized/“Qualitative(@@) interviews”).
-No predetermine questions, and Non-Directive Interaction
labeled as ”Informant interview”
- Explore in-dept infos of general areas: by Interviewer exercise a greater direction over interview, while allow interviewee’s opinion to emerge as responds to the questions.
Refers to all methods of data collection which interviewees get asked from same set of questions in order. .
-Some caution when construct questionnaires.
- Unlikely to have a second chances.
- The design affects the response rate, and data’s Reliability&Validity.
-Better to link them wh other methods as in