# Research Proposal Essay

Submitted By petchaksara
Words: 697
Pages: 3

Quantitative data.(##)
data need to b process(turn them into infos) to make them useful.
-refers to all types of data: primary and secondary data.
-range from: simple counts - more complex data.
-eg. graphs, charts, statistics.
Qualitative data.(@@)
Quality depends on: interaction between collection and analysis of data.
By: Interpret framework (Principal derived from word, not numbers)
Carefully explore them - since word can have multiple and unclear meanings.
-“Social Constructionism”  meaning depend on ppl’s interpretation.

-Character: ambiguous, elastic, and complex.
-From: deductive or inductive approach/perspective.

Distinctions btw Qualitative and Quantitative data.

Quantitative data.(##)
Qualitative data.(@@)
Meaning from.
Numbers.
Words.
Results.
Numerical & Standardized.
Non-std.ized data.
Required classification.
Analysis.
Diagram & Statistic tables.
Conceptualization.
Method.
Statistical calculations.
Interpretation.

Contrast btw “thin” and “thick or through” abstraction(นามธรรม) description.
-“Thin” abstraction”: result from Quantitative data(##) collection.
-“Thick or Through abstraction”: associated with Qualitative data(@@).

The approach of analysis(Can begin with both Deductive and Inductive approach).
- Deductive approach: use existing theory to shape and adopt the Qualitative(@@) research.
-Inductive approach: seek to build up a theory from the data u collected.

Focus group/Focus group interview.
a grp interview which focus to a particular issue.
-“Moderator/Facilitator”person who run a focus grp.
-used by: Political practices(elections), and in Mkt research(product’s reactions).

-Compare wh “Grp interview”.
Interaction & Responses: encouraged and closely controlled.
Participants: have certain characteristics to the topic.
Discussion: conducted several times, with similar participants, to ensure trends and patterns of datas.
“Focus grp” is likely to b larger than “Grp interview”,

Collected Primary data using Interviews.
Purpose conversation btw u&respondents(2+), about ambiguous questions.
-“Research participants”(aka “Respondent”)
-Commonly conduct by face-to-face interview, but sometime it can be by others.
- Can be high formalized&structured, or even informal&unstructured.
-Interview categorized(3categories):
1) Structured Interview.(std.ized/“Quantitative(##) interviews”).
-use questionnaires wh identical set of questions  “Interviewee administered questionnaires”.
-collect Quantifiable data(##).
2) Semi- structured Interview. (non-std.ized/“Qualitative(@@) interviews”).
-researcher have all questions listed but omit some in some interview,
(question ordered vary upon conversation flow).
-Interview schedule: discussion will b Open&Close wh some comments, wh Quick promote to further discussion in btw.
3) Unstructured/In-dept Interview.(non-std.ized/“Qualitative(@@) interviews”).
-No predetermine questions, and Non-Directive Interaction
 labeled as ”Informant interview”
- Explore in-dept infos of general areas: by Interviewer exercise a greater direction over interview, while allow interviewee’s opinion to emerge as responds to the questions.

Questionnaires
Refers to all methods of data collection which interviewees get asked from same set of questions in order. .
-Some caution when construct questionnaires.
- Unlikely to have a second chances.
- The design affects the response rate, and data’s Reliability&Validity.
-Better to link them wh other methods as in