Essay about Review and Practice Exam Questions for

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Review and Practice Exam Questions for Exam 1
Learning Objectives for Exam 1
Unit 1, Part 1: Population vs. sample
Explain and give examples of individuals and variables. (Ch 1)
Calculate a proportion. (Ch 3)
Distinguish between a population and a sample. (Ch 1)
Distinguish between a parameter and a statistic. Identify parameters and statistics in stories. (Ch 1)
Explain the advantages and disadvantages of taking a census. (Ch 1)
Describe the problems that can occur with sample statistics and explain how to prevent them. (Ch 3)
Identify the method of sampling used when given a story. Explain the advantages/disadvantages of each. (Ch 2, 4)
Convenience Sampling
Voluntary Response sampling
Simple random sampling
Stratified random sampling

Unit 1, Part 2: Sampling problems and surveys
Define undercoverage. Explain the problems it causes and how to prevent it. Recognize undercoverage in a story and suggest groups that might be undercovered when taking a sample. (Ch 4)
Describe random sampling error and how it differs from other types of error. (Ch 4)
Define response error/bias and nonresponse. Recognize them in a story and suggest ways to fix them. (Ch 4)
Identify important features of a survey presented in a story, including potential problems, and explain how to improve the survey. (Ch 4)

Unit 2, Part 1: Data collection, features of experiments
Identify the method of data collection used when given a story. Explain how these methods are different. (Ch 1)
Anecdotal evidence
Observational study (including surveys)
Explain why experiments are better than observational studies. (Ch 5)
Identify important features of an experiment from a story. (Ch 5)
Response variable
Explanatory variable
Explain in terms of a story the problems with conducting the simplest possible experiment. (Ch 5)
Lurking variables
Placebo effect
Bias by researchers
Explain why randomized, comparative experiments are good. (Ch 6)
Define whether the 3 principles of good experimental design are being used in a story. (Ch 6)
Control or comparison group
Randomization to treatment groups
Large sample size
Define a double-blind experiment in terms of a story, and explain the benefits. (Ch 6)

Unit 2, Part 2: Types of experiments, clinical trials
Outline an experiment in a diagram, identifying all the important features. (Ch 5)
Identify the type of experimental design used in a story. (Ch 6)
Completely randomized design (CRD)
Randomized block design
Matched pairs design
Explain what is required for a clinical trial with humans and what can go wrong. (Ch 7)
Explain how new drugs get approved by the FDA.

Unit 3: Causation
Differentiate between causation, common response, and confounding. Identify which of these terms is most appropriate for a particular story. (Ch 15)
Diagram causation, common response, and confounding situations. (Ch 15)
Suggest appropriate lurking variables which may be involved in common response or confounding for a story. (Ch 15)
Explain what is necessary in order to show causation. (Ch 15)
Explain whether there is a link between autism and vaccines and the history of this issue.

Unit 4: Ethics of experiments with humans and animals
Define and identify in a story the 3 principles of ethical experiments with humans. (Ch 7)
Review board approval
Informed consent
Explain the difference between confidentiality and anonymity.
Define and identify in a story the 3 Rs of ethical experiments with animals. (Not in the book.)

Unit 5, Part 1: Measurements and numbers
Determine whether a measurement is valid and/or reliable from a story. (Ch 8)
Identify any sources of bias involved in a measurement for a story. (Ch 8)
Explain how calculating an average can improve reliability over individual measurements. (Ch 8)
Identify potential problems and unrealistic numbers presented in a research study. (Ch 9)
Understand that peer review is