During the early part of the 20th century many ideas were planted from the Enlightenment and spread around the world. By this time the United States was over one hundred years old, Japan was westernizing itself, and many Chinese have grown old of the same style leadership that has held power over the centuries. Still China lacked the military strength of the other world powers. Losing the Sino-Japanese War in 1895, losing Taiwan and becoming a threat to be divided up as many different territory the progressives of the country had enough of the dynasty rulers. The Chinese didn’t have to look too far many Western educated reformers explained the fate of Poland leadership to the emperor. They wanted a constitutional monarchy with reforms in the financial sector and the education system throughout the country. By 1900, violent protest reached China with the Boxer rebellion which blamed many problems of China on outsiders. China was changing and becoming more Westernized, so more educational opportunities were available thru missionaries or people sending their kids to other parts of the world and those ideas were coming back to China thus making Republic of China as more viable and more responsive to the people of China.
First, elites in China had taken up more responsibilities and taken over bureaucracies. Many more degree holders were working for the bureaucracies and felt that Gentry managers who were uneducated and corrupt would ruin the countryside. Famine would run rampant and leaders didn’t know how to deal with social problems. The world was changing around China and they were stuck in old ways with corrupt local leaders. The isolation of the leadership was more about self-preservation rather than taking care of real world problems. Many felt they were too conservatives.
Next, Japan was modernizing after losing the Sino-Japanese War which was fought to separate the influence of Chinese influence in Korea. Qing reformers used the Japanese model and for a generation Army officers trained in Japan. The proof that Japanese war tactics worked was when the Chinese beat Russia in the Liadong peninsula in Manchuria. Military officers looked more western in how they dressed. Merchants also wore more suits and college students losing their queues. The Japanese influence was huge military gain that helped the Chinese forces Westernize in fighting tactics. The Qing reformers opened modern schools using Japanese style curriculum letting the graduates enter classical examination schools that would take care of their learning needs. Western thought was given to the students.
Next, while the growing urban middle class was growing the reformers aimed was for self-government and a constitutionality. By 1905, China nationalism was growing boycotting the United States because of the way that they