Group: Group W
Module Title: Skill for Study 2
Assessment Title: Report
Tutor Name: Smith Eve
Student ID Number : 200860469
Date of Submission: Friday 2nd Dec, 2011
Word count: 1668
Today people are pay more attention on Health Expectancy, because they realized that health expectancy are more important than life expectancy. Health expectancy is different from life expectancy，H. Bronnum (2004) states that health expectancy divide life expectancy into two parts: health life time and average lifetime, in other word, health expectancy shows how long a person can expect to live healthy. In developed country health expectancy are not as high as our expected, a group of data from Office for National Statistics (2011) shows the Health expectancy in United Kingdom 2007 was only 63 for male and 65 for female. That means people are suffering from kinds of disease for a long time before death. However as we know in developed country medical standards are high enough for people to have high health expectancy, but unfortunately, today this number cannot satisfied us. We can easily find that there are many factors are contribute to low health expectancy, such like high caloric diet ,lack of exercise , life pressure and so on. In this essay I will focus on obesity and smoking. And bring some solution to those problems, wish to help those people who expect to extend their health expectancy in developed country.
Human being has a long history of smoking, but we realized that smoking can harm our body just for few decades. A World Health Organization (2008) report shows that smoking killed 5400000 people in the world per year. And U.S Department of Health and Human Services (2004) states that dozens of smoking-related disease harms nearly every organ of our body. There are over 4000 different chemicals contained in every cigarette we use, most of them are poisonous and more than 50 kinds of those chemicals are known for cause cancer.
However even smokers knew that smoking can do only harm to their body, they still cannot quit it. Many people are trying to give up smoking, some of them ware succeed but most of them are fall. The reason of why smokers can not quit smoking is Nicotine, which is a kind of drug can make people addicted. Nicotine stimulating the user’s brain and created a pleasurable feeling, after several times stimulated, smoker’s brain and body will get in addicted to nicotine (Royal College of Physicians 2000). So people who trying to quit smoking are not only fighting with a habit but also their body and brain. Fortunately to quit smoking are not as hard as we thought. In fact there are many expert are working in this field. A kind of mature therapy to quit smoking is Nicotine Replacement Therapy. This method is aim to prevent people smoking by providing certain dose of nicotine (McNeill, A 2001). As this essay discussed above, nicotine is the main purpose of people use cigarette. Even we know that nicotine is harmful, but compare with those chemicals in cigarette, to use safety dose of nicotine can be better. After smoker would able to stop smoking completely, instead of using nicotine replace product, than we can reduce the dose of nicotine by a long period, in the end smoker will no longer need to smoking any more.
Nicotine Replacement Therapy make perfectly sense in theory, whereas in real case it does not work as well as we expects. But there are many other way to control tobacco use. Government are trying to set some related polices on the issue of smoking, such as banned smoking in public places, not allowed to sell tobacco to juveniles, raise the rate of tobacco tax and so on. Those policies are quite successful. “The targets for England were as follows: to reduce smoking rates to 21% or less by 2010, with a reduction in prevalence among routine and manual groups to 26% or less. The target for all adults in England was reached by 2007 ” (ASH Briefing: