Lateen sail: Triangular sails fixed to a long crossbar, used by the Arab traders and adopted from the Malay. It was capable of taking wind on either side, and allowed for sailors to sail a great distance in little time.
Hajj: Yearly, Muslim pilgrimage that is advocated for every Muslim at least once in their lifetime. This demanded international travel and contact with other peoples, which caused trade connections to flourish during Hajj
Cairo Genizah: Cairo, Egypt was one of the world’s great trade centers, and housed many Jewish merchants. The Cairo Genizah was a storage point for old Jewish papers, that by Jewish law, were required to be kept and not destroyed.
Polynesians: Austronesian- speaking people who migrated from south China/ Southeast Asia to Taiwan, Philippines, and eastern Europe. They were the greatest seafaring people of pre-modern times who were able to travel long distances on boats that carried women, men, livestock, and food. They only traveled for necessity, and not to expand
Malay sailors: Sailors of the South China Seas who left four legacies to world seafaring: cargo ships( jongs), balance-lug ships that led to many adaptations and developments, learned the patterns of seasonal monsoon winds, and made regular voyages of 3000 miles along the Indian Ocean
2) Explain the workings of long-distance trade and trade diasporas and the reasons why Jews and Muslims often became traders
Both used religion and ethnicity as a basis of trade networks, and were able to form efficient networks by finding out who they could trust. Their religion and ethnicity formed the basis of comm.. and trust necessary for conducting business.
Muslim and Jewish Traders:
-Musl. Arab traders = critical to development of African trade networks (across Sahara, N to S, and to Indian ocean)
-Jews ( smaller group) were also able to expand trade across the entire eastern hemisphere (China to west Eur. and through Africa)
-For both their religion and ethnicity formed the basis of community and trust necessary for business
-Many groups learned who they could trust and formed trade based on shared rel. + ethnicity
-Christ. Armenians, Jain/ Hindu, Fukienese (China) - but to a lesser geographical extent
-Small overseas Muslim trade comm. often attracted people to assimilate to Islam (Indonesia) , while the other trading comm. stayed within their own networks
Jewish Traders: -Tang-Abbasid control of Silk route = Jews once again emerged as a prominent trading comm.. throughout Europe and China
-Emigration of Jews to far points helped them create a vast trade network (Religious Diaspora = trade Diaspora)
-Charlemagne’s European empire allowed Jews to carry trade to southern Europe
-Baghdad held the most prominent Jewish comm. in the world at the time, along with Cairo
-Abbasid caliphs move capital to Baghdad = Musl. traders (mainly Arabs + Persians) dominated routes through the Indian Ocean
-Muslim sultanate gained control of Delhi led to Hindian traders converting to Islam -Along with goods, Musl. traders carried their rel. and cult. distant merchants absorbed parts of Islam
-Hajj( pilgrimage) demanded inter. Travel trade conn. flourished with hajj
- Arab traders sailed with monsoon winds to India, then Southeast Asia, then southeast coast of China - Caught the proper seasonal winds in each direction and used lateens( triangular sails) for maximum effect
- Carried by traders, not military, Islam became the dominant religion in Indonesia and millions of Chinese
Length of Indian