Black Panther Party for Self-Defense The Black Panther Party for self-Defense was born on October 15, 1966 out of the African American outrage for police brutality on blacks and the lack of police protection in African American neighborhoods. It called for violence in the name of self-Defense to fight for the demise of discrimination but mostly to unite the black community and rid of the self hatred and low-self esteem that has plagued blacks since the colonial era. Its founders Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale embraced socialist and Marxist ideologies but its their emphasizes on black nationalism and black power that truly attracted joining members. As the black panther party for Self-Defense grew it became considered a major threat to the internal security in the United States. As it gained momentum and became a threat, United States agencies actively sought to derail, discredit and discourage the growing movement even if it meant breaking the law. Following the highly published cases of racist police brutality, the assassination of Malcolm X and the start of the Vietnam war, Huey P. Newton began to plot his organization to fight against the effects of colonialism and neocolonialism. Huey Newton joined forces with Bobby Seale to find the revolutionary socialist organization, the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense. The organization was highly influenced by Malcolm X and his ideas. The Black Panther Party agreed with Malcolm that all people of African descent should embrace their African heritage instead of hating it as they were conditioned to do by western whites. It encouraged ties with African nations and a revival of African culture in the black American community. The Black Panther Party also deeply agreed with Malcom's early teachings of violent protest for freedom. Huey Newton and Bobby Seale even created the tag line “Freedom by and means necessary” for the Black Panther party. They armed themselves and protested for major change in the United States, even siding with the Vietnamese against the U.S. Huey Newton's trial for the murder of police officer John Frey, led to many protest with both black and white youths adding momentum to what Newton considered a revolution. In the late 70's and early 80's the Black Panther Party eventually became less radical and was more involved with local government. While Bobby Seale was expelled and Huey Newton was away in Cuba, Elaine brown became chairman, being the first woman to lead the party. Elaine Brown unsuccessfully ran for office but successfully won Lionel Wilson the seat as mayor of Oakland, making him the first African American to be mayor of Oakland. Following Huey Newton's return to the United States in 1977 the FBI, through their COINTELPRO project brought the demise of the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense. COINTELPRO, which stands for Counter Intelligence Program, was a secret FBI agency formed in 1956 to intervene in activities of the communist party in the United States. In the 1960's it branched out to other domestic groups they saw as threats. They began to secretly investigate and tactfully try to dissemble these groups, which included the Black Panther Party for Self Defense. Although they were later criticized by congress and the American people for violating first amendment rights, they still managed to play a significant role in disabling many black activist groups and almost solely causing the downfall of the empowering Black Panther Party. Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, John Edgar Hoover, green lighted the program ordering FBI agents to
womens rights to vote and many other aspects of life that men could do but women couldn't
planned economy: government controls and regulates production and distribution
political machines: a group that controls the actions of a specific political party
Pullman Strike (1894): the Pullman company fired many people and cut several wages, and after they weren't restored a strike was called into order
railroads: set of tracks made of steel of which a train and passengers ride on
Texas heard the news that the war was over.
The Underground Railroad was formed to help slaves escape the hard life of slavery to Canada free places in the United States. The underground was ran by Northern abolitionist which was made up of blacks was well as whites. The escaped slaves were called passengers, the homes where they were sheltered was called stations, and those who guided them conductors. Nephin said “While there never were any actual railways tunneling underground across Lancaster…
000 African Americans had joined the nation of Islam and Malcolm X had become its best-known spokesperson.
- Malcolm X wanted the separation of races, not integration. He spoke of King’s nonviolence as ‘the philosophy of the fool’ and called for a ‘black revolution’ to overthrow white power. ‘While King was having a dream, the rest of us Negroes are having a nightmare’.
- He urged followers to defend themselves against white aggression “by any means necessary.”
(B) Significant Incidents and events…
Berlin after the Soviets blockaded the city in 1948
Big Stick Diplomacy – Theodore Roosevelt’s policy of backing up diplomatic relations with military force
Black Panthers – a militant African American political organization formed in 1966 by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale to fight police brutality and to provide services in the ghetto
Black Tuesday – a name given to October 29, 1929, when stock prices fell sharply
bootlegger – a person who smuggled alcoholic beverages into the United States during…