Study Guide – Exam #1
Carl, Chapters: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
Readings: On being sane in insane places, Media images and the social construction of reality, Media and Epidemic, Celebrity culture, Race, quarterbacks and the media, and Filter Bubble.
Videos: What Would You Do, Paris Hilton
Guest Speaker: Matt Toy
1. Be able to explain the hierarchy of the sciences
I. Hierarchy of the Sciences
Complex Concrete Sociology Biology Chemistry Physics Astronomy
II. Understanding of hierarchy
-Hard sciences like physics and astronomy are simple because there are right and wrong answers and they are abstract because they cannot be seen or touched
-Sociology is complex because it looks at a lot of things and it is concrete because they can been seen everyday life and inferences can be drawn from what is seen. 2. Understand what we mean by your sociological imagination.
I. Definition of sociological imagination
-Sociological imagination: the ability to look beyond the individual as the cause for success and failure and see how one’s society influences the outcome
II. Different views
-Micro viewpoint: a small-scale point of view that focuses on the individual
-Macro viewpoint: a large-scale point of view
3. Know the steps in sociological research.
-Research and investigation conducted by social scientists.
-6 Steps: 1. Decide on Topic. 2. Review the Literature -study of relevant academic articles and info. Lets you know what other researchers think/ know about a topic 3. Develop a Hypothesis -testable prediction that involves a suggestion on how variables relate. 4. Collect Data
-Surveys: an investigation of the opinions or experiences of a group of people by asking them questions -Experiments
-Field research: takes the sociologists into the streets; includes case studies, participant observation, and ethnography -make sure its reliable and valid. 5. Analyze results -statistical analysis. Mean, median, and mode. 6.Share and Publish Results -ASA style.
4. Explain the two media effects (agenda setting and cultivation). Give examples. I. Agenda Setting -Mass media sets the agenda for whatever the public and media talks and focuses about -tell us what to think about; what’s going on in the world that we should talk about
-ex) April 1986 a poll showed only 2% of pop. was concerned about drugs. June 19, 1986, Len Bias dies of drug overdose, and then Sept 1986 drugs were the #1 prob to the media. Drug use dropped even more
II. Cultivation -Heavy viewing of media will lead us to view reality as how we see it on TV
-Gerbner: “mean world” syndrome. If you watch a lot of crime dramas, you will see the world as a violent and crime-ridden place. Become fearful
1. Know how media “frame” and event and what that means.
-Refers to how media portray an event on TV or newspaper
-Refers to what the media focuses on and what you see is what you believe
Ex: Passionate kiss during riot; in reality his girlfriend passed out and he was comforting her
-Reporter’s bias and viewer’s desires dictate what is on the news
6. II. Horizontal vs. vertical ownership of media
-Horizontal ownership: there is a limit of how much media you can own
-Vertical ownership: monopolizing media in an area; monopolizing information
Ex: Chicago Tribune owns TV, newspaper, radio, etc. in Chicago
7. Know why TV ratings matter I. Television ratings
-Television shows are only what fills in between commercials because commercials make the money
-Sweeps are when the advertising rates are set for a specific television program
-The more popular a show is, the higher the advertising rate is which is why during sweeps a lot of shows have guest stars
-Targeted audience is 18-45 or 18-29. Spend more $, and ads are more expensive for higher rated shows
8. Understand how Google/search engines help you decide what you want -?????????…