Understanding causes of infection.
1.1 & 1.2
Micro-organism is a general term that describes bacteria, viruses, and some fungi. To enable them to grow and reproduce they need:
*Bacteria are living things that are neither plants nor animals, but belong to a group all by themselves. They are very small--individually not more than one single cell--however there are normally millions of them together, for they can multiply really fast.Bacteria are prokaryotes (single cells that do not contain a nucleus).
Every species has a great ability to produce offspring and its population expands until it runs out of food or it is limited by competition, its own waste products, or some other factor. Changes in climate or introduction of a new species from elsewhere can greatly affect the balance of nature.
Illnesses/infections caused by bacteria can be Salmonellosis, tuberculosis, MRSA, coccidiosis, food poisoning, dysentery, bronchitis, ear infections, strep throat, tonsilitis, pneumonia, gonorrhea, syphilis & chlamydia.
*A virus is a small infectious agent that can replicate only inside the living cells of organisms. Most viruses are too small to be seen directly with a light microscope. Viruses infect all types of organisms, from animals and plants to bacteria and archaea.
All viruses have genes made from either DNA or RNA, long molecules that carry genetic information; all have a protein coat that protects these genes; and some have an envelope of fat that surrounds them when they are outside a cell.
Illness/infection by a virus can cause Influenza, common cold, stomach flu, pneumonia, ear infections, HIV/AIDS, herpes, warts, dengue, West Nile Virus & Encephalitis.
*Fungi is an Eukaryotes..when compared to bacteria(prokaryote) and virus.Like plants and animals, fungi are eukaryotic multicellular organisms.
One major difference is that fungal cells have cell walls that contain chitin, unlike the cell walls of plants, which contain cellulose.The chitin adds rigidity and structural support to the thin cells of the fungus, and makes fresh mushrooms crisp.
Illness/infection caused by fungi can be Valley fever, athlete's foot, ringworm & yeast infection .
*A parasite is an organism that lives on or inside another organism to the detriment of the host organism.
These are of various forms and types .A parasite is an organism that lives on or in a host and gets its food from or at the expense of its host. Parasites can cause disease in humans. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not. The burden of these diseases often rests on communities in the tropics and subtropics, but parasitic infections also affect people in developed countries.
Illness/infection caused from a parasite could be schistosomiasis, malaria, sleeping sickness (trypanosomiasis) & leishmaniasis.
Colonisation occurs whenever any one or more species populate an area and infection is the invasion of body tissues by disease-causing microorganisms, their multiplication and the reaction of body tissues to these microorganisms and the toxins that they produce.
Systemic means it's in the blood stream and is spreading/has spread through the body. Septicaemia is an example of a systemic infection.
Localised means the infection is restricted to one small area only. An infected cut or ulcer is an example of this. A localised infection can spread and become systemic
Poor practise that may lead to the spread of infection can be not washing your hands, not wearing PPE, not storing or cooking foods properly, not cleaning your surroundings, not covering your nose or mouth when sneezing or coughing. Also safe handling of sharps before & after use.
Understanding the transmission of infection.
The conditions needed for the growth of micro-organisms are:
Food, micro - organisms need food to survive.
They like high protein food to survive, eg. poultry & fish.…