*NOTES IN HERE ABOUT SYER AND CONNELLY
Bruce Tuckman described four stages of team development in 1965 (as
Detailed below) Looking at small teamsin a variety of environments, he recognized the distinct phases they go through, and suggested they need to experience all four stages before they achieve maximum effectiveness. He refined and developed this in 1977 in conjunction with Mary Ann Jensen, and added a further fifth stage, Adjourning, which talked about completing the task and breaking up the team. Teamwork Works is the most comprehensive book on work team dynamics to date. It makes explicit how to create and develop effective teamwork. Syer and Connolly show how a team discovers its identity, becomes self-regulating, and evolves to maximize its potential. They address: Relationships - how heightening the quality of relationships between team members optimizes performance. Complexity - how teams are complex systems. A project team of 20 members has 190 relationships and each member has a relationship to each other relationship. Contribution - how a conscious contribution to a shared purpose enhances motivation. Process - how interaction shapes the structure of the team's work life. Performance - how developing the team's identity improves and sustains high levels of performance.
In the first stage of team building, the forming of the team takes place. The individual's behavior is driven by a desire to be accepted by the others, and avoid controversy or conflict. Serious issues and feelings are avoided, and people focus on being busy with routines, such as team organization, who does what, when to meet, etc. Individuals are also gathering information and impressions - about each other, and about the scope of the task and how to approach it. This is a comfortable stage to be in, but the avoidance of conflict and threat means that not much actually gets done. The team meets and learns about the opportunities and challenges, and then agrees on goals and begins to tackle the tasks. Team members tend to behave quite independently. They may be motivated but are usually relatively uninformed of the issues and objectives of the team. Team members are usually on their best behavior but very focused on themselves. Mature team members begin to model appropriate behavior even at this early phase. Supervisors of the team tend to need to be directive during this phase. The forming stage of any team is important because, in this stage, the members of the team get to know one another, exchange some personal information, and make new friends. This is also a good opportunity to see how each member of the team works as an individual and how they respond to pressure.
Every group will next enter the’storming’stage in which different ideas compete for consideration. The team addresses issues such as what problems they are really supposed to solve, how they will function independently and together and what leadership model they will accept. Team members open up to each other and confront each other's ideas and perspectives. In some cases ‘storming’can be resolved quickly. In others, the team never leaves this stage. The maturity of some team members usually determines whether the team will ever move out of this stage. Some team members will focus on minutiae to evade real issues.
The ‘storming’ stage is necessary to the growth of the team. It can be contentious, unpleasant and even painful to members of the team who are averse to conflict. Tolerance of each team member and their differences should be emphasized. Without tolerance and patience the team will fail. This phase can become destructive to the team and will lower motivation if allowed to get out of control. Some teams will never develop past this stage.
Supervisors of the team during this phase may be more accessible, but tend to remain