Readings Ch. 19, pp. 606-612
Ch. 20, all, p. 644, docs 20.1,2,4,5,7,9
1. How did TR become President?
Elected as McKinley’s vice president in 1900 and became president after McKinley’s assassination.
2. Bully pulpit- term used by Teddy Roosevelt to describe the office of the presidency. Roosevelt believed that the president should use his office as a platform to promote his programs and rally public opinion.
3. “Square Deal”- was President Theodore Roosevelt's domestic program formed upon three basic ideas: conservation of natural resources, control of corporations, and consumer protection. It aimed at helping middle class citizens and involved attacking plutocracy and bad trusts while at the same time protecting business from the most extreme demands of organized labor.
4. “trustbuster”- law that promotes or maintains market competition by regulating anti-competitive conduct by companies.
5. What were the “two notable consumer laws” passed in 1906?
1) Meat Inspection Act and 2) Pure Food and Drug Act
6. TR views on race
Lacked commitment to black equality; supported eugenics; believed whites were superior over people of color
7. Contrast TR and WHT
Taft was most notable for trust-busting, in which he broke up large businesses that had too much control over the economy. Taft also expanded civil service, fixed up the United States Postal Service and promoted world peace as well. Yet throughout the Progressive Era the most progressive president was Theodore Roosevelt. He was considered a trust-buster, attacked big business, applied his square, and promoted the conservation movement.
8. Election of 1912 – four major candidates and parties—winner—why
1)Roosevelt-New Progressive Party, 2) Woodrow Wilson-Democrat, 3) Eugene V. Debs- Socialist Party, 4) William Howard Taft- Republican
Woodrow Wilson won because Republican vote was split.
9. Wilson and the tariff
Signed Underwood Act of 1913- lowered tariffs
10. What was also included in the Underwood Act that lowered tariffs?
Employed graduated income tax and reduced import duties
11. What emerged from the effort at banking reform?
Federal Reserve System which established 12 regional banks that lent cash reserves to member banks at a rediscount rate that could be adjusted according to demand for credit.
12. Federal Trade Commission-principal mission is the promotion of consumer protection and the elimination and prevention of anti-competitive business practices, such as coercive monopoly.
13. Wilson’s views on race
Employed racists, introduced racial segregation in White House, appointed Southern racists and supported segregation and discrimination.
14. Alfred Thayer Mahan- military historian and strategist at US Naval War College. Work reinforced that long-term prospects of the US depended on the acquisition of strategic outposts in Asia and the Caribbean that could guarantee American access to overseas markets.
15. List of US colonial (and protectorate) acquisitions from 1898-1904
16. Where did the US intervene to dominate even though not colonies?
17. Role of exports, race, and religion in shaping US attitude toward world involvement
Growing influence of sugar market led to a coup that overthrew Hawaiian government. Americans and Western Europeans declared themselves superior to nonwhite people of Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Christian missionaries were used to benefit American exports and commercial influence.
18. Changes in the US Navy
19. What was the vision of “Cuba Libre”?
Cuban independence with greater social and racial equality.
20. “yellow journalism”- sensationalist news accounts meant to provoke an emotional response in readers. Contributed to the growth of public support for American intervention in Cuba in 1898
21. Role of Cuban insurgents in defeating Spain
Fought using guerilla warfare; outnumbered 200,000:50,000; Spanish soldiers wiped out from diseases and climate