When Winston Churchill gives his speech to Parliament, he includes himself as one of the citizens of England: “We have before us an ordeal of the most grievous kind. We have before us many, many long months of struggle and of suffering.” As the Prime Minister, Churchill does not elevate himself above others in the speech; instead, he places himself as an equal to his fellow citizens of England. He does not address Parliament as “you” and difficulties as “yours,” he includes himself with the common men and possesses full preparations to endure sufferings with the public. Churchill continues to use ethos to appeal to the spectators when he declares, “[C]ome then, let us go forward together with our united strength.” The using of the pronouns “we”, “us”, and “our” portrays the idea that Churchill desires to be alongside his countrymen. Through encompassing ethos in his speech, Churchill reveals to the members of Parliament his eagerness and willingness to participate in any hardship that will be faced by the people of the country. He successfully convinces his listeners by using ethos and informing them that he will always be standing parallel next to the citizens of England in encountering upcoming challenges.
The second rhetorical device Churchill exercises is repetition and parallel structure, and an example of it is when he states, “[B]ut it must be remembered that we are in the preliminary stage of one of the greatest battles in history, that we are in action… that we have to be prepared… .” He repeats the phrase “that we” to state that they, he and his countrymen, are joined together as one to face the upcoming challenges, and thus emphasizing his desire for unity. Next, he says, “It is victory, victory at all costs, victory in spite of all terror, victory, however long and hard the road may be; for without victory, there is no survival.” Through the use of anaphora, Churchill places emphasis on the word “victory” to display optimism to the crowd. Immediately following the repetition of “victory,” Churchill outlines the consequences if victory is not heeded and achieved: “[W]ithout victory, there is no survival. Let that be realised; no survival for the British Empire, no survival for all that the British Empire has stood for, no survival for the urge and impulse of ages… .” Likewise, he repeats the phrase “no survival” several times to highlight the importance of gaining victory; he stresses “no survival” to accentuate the unpleasant aftermath if victory cannot be attained. Churchill reiterates many words and phrases to capture the masses’ attention, and this rhetorical device of repetition often magnifies the importance of what is being repeated.
Lastly, Churchill uses a shift in tone as one of his many rhetorical devices towards the end of his speech. Throughout the first part of his speech, Churchill describes imminent