1. Describe what is meant by the following terms.
a. Hot Cognition- Emotional, motivational aspect of thinking. Mental processes that are driven by our desires and feeling. Feeling disappointed when you don’t meet your own standards of conduct.
b. Shame- can be unhealthy: Feelings of unworthiness, I am bad.
c. Guilt- can be healthy: I feel bad because I did something bad.
d. Characterological Affect: A recurrent feeling that keeps coming up in the client’s life.
e. Interoception: Sensitivity to stimuli originating from inside the body. The way we have a perception of the interior. The skill of sensing our internal bodily states.
f. Presence: Our openness to the unfolding of possibilities. Allows us to be open to others and ourselves.
g. Attunement: How we focus our attention on others and take their essence into our own inner world. Act of focusing on another person.
h. Resonance: The coupling of the two autonomous entities into a functional whole.
i. Winnicott’s “Good Enough”: 127, Mothers do not have to be perect for helthy development to occur within their children. She just has to be good enough, the most important quality for her to have is capacity for attunement to the baby’s changing developmental needs.
j. Holding Environment: 127, The holding and the capacity of the mother to create the world in such a way for the baby that she feels held, safe, and protected from dangers without and protected from the danger of emotions within. For therapists it is to create a safe physical and psychological space where the client can feel protected and free.
k. Transitional Objects: 128, Comfort object such as worn blanket or a teddy bear. This is used to compensate and comfort during times separate from mother. These objects offer ways for the child to hold on to the internal representations of others when she is not yet able to do so on her own.
l. True vs. False Self: 130, True self is the core of one’s personality, individuality, uniqueness. False is when one seeks to suppress individuality and molds itself to the needs of others.
m. Projection: 143, Refers to the process of expelling, sending outward and getting rid of unwanted or bad feelings and placing them in others.
n. Projection Identification: 143, It is a defense and a manifestation of a fantasied object relationship., the aim is to get rid of something within the self that is uncomfortable and unacceptable, but when the projector identifies it The projector does not want to lose the projected part completely.
o. Rapprochement: 150, 24-36 mo. The phase for the child and caregiver in which the shild has the opposing needs to cling close with their caregiver at times and explore the world separate from their parent/caregiver at others. Needy parent may cling too much while an overburdened parent might push the child away too soon.
p. Object Constancy: 151, 36 mo and older-Establishment in the psyche of a relatively stable and positive representation first of the mother and then of others. Provides security and strength from the feeling that the self can endure and be well whether or not the object is meeting its needs at the moment.
q. Attachment Styles
i. Secure, show distress when caregiver leaves but are able to compose themselves and do something knowing their caregiver will return. Feel Protected by caregiver and know they can depend on them to return. ii. Insecure: Avoidant, do not protest mother’s leaving and do not respond to mother right away after she returns. Ambivalent, aka resistant, upset hen mothers left and welcomed their return. They did not calm doen redily and resisted the mother’s attempt to calm them Disorganized,
2. Describe the basic concept of Object Relations Theory
Psychoanalytic theory that emphasizes interpersonal relationships.
The focus is on the complex relationship of self to other. Explores the processwhereby people come to experience themselves as separate and independent from